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Includes ALL my lecture notes from the course in one document so in a way its a study guide.

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York University
BIOL 2030
Scott Fielder

Animals 2030 Lecture 1 September 14, 2010 Email: [email protected] [email protected] LM205 Tamara Kelly [email protected] by appointment only Midterm Exam is 75 minutes, 40 MC Balances of material i.e. equal number of questions. Midterm includes material up to and including Oct. 21 (Mollusca II) Final is 80MC, 20 from Midterm 1 material and 60MC of post-midterm material Lecture 2 September 16, 2010: Classification and Phylogeny (Ch4, 72-88) Classification and Relationships Aristotle had an interest in classifying and was the first person to start it Linnaeus really developed the system to our current model (1700s) o Based on morphology what the animals body shape looks like o Hierarchical taxonomic framework: at the top an all encompassing group i.e. Kingdoms, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species aka 7 mandatory ranks o For larger animal groups you have way more ranks; upto 30 ranks! o Binomial nomenclature ex. Anguilla japonica (capital first letter for genus and species is the second work aka species epithet Phylogeny : Phylon means race and genesis means descent. Basically the history of development of species or other group. Aka ancestry. Characters: organismal features used to make evolutionary tree/phylogeny Homology: character similarity resulting from common ancestry, shared character is because they have one common ancestor which was held onto while the species evolved Homoplasy: non-homologous characters which misrepresent common ancestry. Ex. Mammals, birds and fish are NOT closely related but they all have similar body shapes. Evolutionary convergence of fusiform shape (body is tapered on both ends) due the environment they live in. How do we use character variation to reconstruct phylogeny? Cladistics Cladistics: evaluation of information for tree building and classification. Cladogram: End result or diagram based on the cladistic analysis, your evolutionary tree. Common ancestor is at the base of the diagram and species branch off. Can get huge! Clade is group of organisms that includes most recent common ancestor and all members and descendants of that ancestor. Polarity: Basically looks at different forms of a character. Ex some animals have an opposable thumb while other dont. Did the common ancestor have the opposable thumb or not? Cladistics is unbiased because it allows you to ask questions about its ancestry. o Outgroup comparison: Examines polarity of a character state. Ex. Outgroup is at the bottom of the clade and you examine say vertebral colomn. The second outgroup may have the vertebral colomn. Outgroup is basically the closest ancestor that lacks the characteristic youre examining. o Synampomorphy: Sources of Phylogenetic info Comparative morphology: includes the study of the developmetal origin aka embryo. Eg. Skull bones, limb bones, scales, hairs. Where can you get this information? Fossil records and living species! Fossil day plays an important role even today. Comparative biochemistry: gene and protein sequencing sg. mtDNA (mito DNA changes fast), tRNA (changes slow). This is done mostly from living material but can also done from fossil material. Comparative cytology: examines chromosomes, number of it, shape and associated material (ex. Histones). Only from living material. 1 ANIMAL ARCHITECTURE (Ch3, 55-71) 5 categories of organization: **Bacterial and Protozoans ARE NOT THE SAME. Protozoans are considered animals NOT bacteria. ** 1) Protozoa: unicellular animal-like orgs and animal like looking cells. Can cause diseases like malaria, shagus disease etc. Free-living single cells. a. Protoplasmic level of organization : contain specialized organelles like contractile vacuole. 2.5) Metazoa: multicellular animals. Cannot live independently. Ex take a liver cell and it will die on its own. a. Cellular level of organization: forms aggregate of cells that exhibit division of labor. Like a colony of protoplasmic cells that make up a whole cell. Cells NEVER form tissue in this case b. Cell-tissue level of organization: forms tissue c. S d. Tissue-organ level: aggregation of tissue that forms an organ. Organ made up of more than one type of tissue ex. Parenchyma and stroma (connective tissue). e. Organ system level: organs work together as a system to perform common function. Associated with basic body function. 11 Organ systems observed within metazoans Which organs work together to form the digestive system? Gastrointestinal (GI) tract! 1) GI tract: oral cavity etc 2) Accessory digestive: salivary glands Tissue Types (pg. 64) Tissue: Organization of like cells that make up organs: 4 types: 1) Epithelial tissue (6 types): covers external or internal surface. Ex. Skin. Skin of frogs is important in science studied to understand transport of salt. Frogs live in fresh water so you should lose salt to the environment and gain water through osmosis but not in frogs! Its actively transporting salts in its skin and responsible for maintaining high salt concentrations. a. Simple squamous: thin flattenend carpet of cells. Good for gas exchange in lungs. b. Simple Cuboidal: short boxlike cells. Found in secretory organs eg. Kidney. Good for salt transport. Absortptive function. Found in insects in malphigian tubules responsible for its resistance to pesticides due to transporters found in these tubules. c. Simple columnar: individual cells are tall and associated with absorptive surfaces like intestines. d. Stratified squamous: layered on top of each other. Top most layer looks like a carpet while bottom of epithelia is basal cells that push upward so outside layer is always being replaced. Esophagus (food goes down) e. Stratified columnar: found in rectum, cells on top layer are elongated and bottom is smaller cells 2 f. Pseudostratified: single layer of cells but some of them are wide at the top and thin at the base while others are wide at the base and thin at the top. Fake cuz it looks like a thick layer with bunch of cells but its not like that. These cells can have cilia at the top. Nose etc. Examples of epithelial tissue Fish Gill: Simple multifunctional epithelium. Gill Arches contain blood vessels. Involved in respiration. Grabs CO 2nd gets rid of it back to water. Maintains ion balance. Acid-base balance, metabolism causes acid so gills move proton out to the water. Waste excretion, nitrogenous waste and ammonia so gills contain transporters that do that. 90% squamous epithelial for pavement cells and 10% cuboidal for chloride cells 2) Connective tissue: diverse group. Specialized to bind and support other tissue. Structural. bone tissue, vascular system (blood vessels) 3) Muscular tissue: specialized for voluntary and involuntary movement of many organs. Common tissue type found in all animals. Cardiac, smooth lining esophagus, skeletal for limb movements. 4) Nervous tissue: specialized for reception and conduction of stimuli and impulses. Electrically active. Brain, spinal chord. Non cellular Components 1) Body fluids: eumetazoans contain two fluid compartments. intracellular space extracellular space blood plasma interstitial fluid: fluid that occupied immediate space surrounding cells in tissues and within organs. 2) Extracellular structural elements: supportive material like cuticle etc. Body Plans Only a few body plans in the animal kingdom: 1) Asymmetry: lack of symmetry and no axis and no plane of symmetry. Ex. Protozoans like amoeba, sponges (poriferans) 2) Spherical symmetry: rare and found only in Radiolarian protozoans. You can cut the animal any way you want through the core and you will always get two equal halves. Lacks polarity. 3) Symmetry a. Radial Symmetry: polyps and some sponges. Divided equally by more than two planes passing thru the LONGITUDINAL AXIS. Most forms are modified like a starfish which has 5 arms it bcan also be called pentaradial. Best example is Sea anemone b. Bilateral symmetry: body parts with a head and tail (posterior & anterior). Animal must be divided at midsaggital plane (plane that separates left and right of the animal). Associated with cephalization (concentration of nervous tissue to form a sort of brain or ganglion involved with processing). Controlled mobility because head sees environment first. c. Spherical symmetry: covered above Lecture 3 September 21, 2010 3 levels of character in animal body plans 1) Symmetry 2) Internal Architecture 3) Developmental Patterns Body Plans Tree start with spherical symmetry at the bottom of the tree radial symmetry slightly above to the left (just below flatworms) 3 **Asymmetry is found in both radial and spherical (sponges and protozoa)** some sponges are asymmetric while some show symmetry the rest of the tree i
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