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Study Guide

BIOL 2050- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)

32 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 2050
Christopher Lortie

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[BIOL 2050] Comprehensive guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Lecture 1: Chapter 1 – Web of Life Case Study – Deformity and Decline in Amphibians • There has been a decline in the popln of amphibians and a high incidence of deformities lately • They are ▯▯iologi▯al i▯di▯ators▯ of e▯▯iro▯▯e▯tal pro▯le▯s • Because their skin is permeable, pollutants pass through easily o Additionally, their eggs are unprotected (no shell) o They also spend time in water and on land so are exposed to pollutants in both • In one experiment on frogs, experimenters tested the effects of parasites and pesticides on the frogs o First they tested parasites and found that Parasites cause deformities o Then they tested parasites and pesticides to see if they interacted ▪ There was a drastic inc. in deformities and it was hypothesized that pesticides weakened the immune systems and allowed parasites to infect them Concept 1.1 – Events in the natural world are interconnected • They are connected by interactions o A change in one part of an ecological system can alter other parts • Even species that do not interact directly can be connected by shared environmental features o e.g. food, space, etc. • Ecologists ask questions about the natural world in order to understand these connections • Controlled experiment – Experimental groups are compared to a control group which lacks the factor being tested Concept 1.2 – Ecology is the study of interactions b/w organisms and other organisms, and organisms and their environment (how they affect each other) • Environmental Science – incorporates both natural (biology, ecology) and social sciences (politics, economics) and focuses on how people affect the environment and how to address the problems created • Two types of interactions: o Biotic (living) o Abiotic (non-living) ▪ e.g. temp, weather • Competition (-/-) • Amensalism (-/0) • Predation (incl. herbivory and parasitism) (+/-) • Neutral (0/0) • Commensalism (+/0) • Mutualism (+/+) • Fallacy: o There is a balance of nature in which natural systems will return to its original state after a disturbance ▪ Not true cause if forest burns down it will not come back find more resources at
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