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Midterm

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2905
Professor
Tanya Da Sylva
Semester
Fall

Description
Midterm - Microbiology History of Microbiology (Chapter 1) - Microbes and microorganisms include organisms that are to small to be seen under a microscope six groups of microorganisms. - The six Groups of Microorganisms are - Bacteria and Archaea (prokaryotes) – they lack nuclei meaning no membrane surrounding their gene - They are smaller than eukaryotes, grow in singles, pairs or in clusters and chains (wherever there is enough moisture - - Archaea - Bacteria - Fungi (ex. mold or yeast)(eukaryotic)- inside the cell there is genetic information contained within a membrane - They obtain food from other organisms unlike plants - Molds, typically multicellular, grow in long filaments that intertwine to make up the body, reproduce by sexual and asexual spores, produce without fusing - ex cottony growth on cheese bread and Penicillium chrysogenum- mold that produces penicillin - Yeast unicellular, typically oval and round, asexual- (budding daughter cell grows of the mother cell it does not result in 2 daughter cells), some produce sexual spores - ex Saccharomyces cerevisiae- lets bread rise and turn sugar into alcohol and Candida albicans- causes yeast infections in women - Protozoa (“first animal” single celled eukaryotes similar in nutrition needs and cell structure as animals but have own category - Capable of locomotion cilia, flagella, pseudopodia- flow in the extension of direction, typically live in water, some in hosts causing disease, most asexually but some sexually Protozoa with pseudopodia in the picture - Algae multicellular and unicellular photosynthetic organisms, like plants make own food from CO 2 and water using the sun, differ from plants –reproduction - Categorized by pigmentation and composition of cell wall - Large algae- seaweeds and kelps, unicellular algae- common in fresh water, major food source - Unicellular algae List and describe the four steps in the scientific method of investigation. - Scientific method- questions are answered through observation, outcomes are carefully controlled experiments, used as a framework for conducting experiments 1) Group of observation leads scientist to ask a question about a phenomenon 2) Generates a hypothesis- what they think is going to happen (so the answer) 3) Design and conducts experiment to test the hypothesis 4) Based on the result they can go back and revise hypo or reject the hypo, or if its right they got their answer and may turn into a law or theory Also called Koch’s postulates after Robert Koch 1) Suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and absent in a healthy host 2) Must be isolated and grown 3) When introduced to a healthy patient they must get the disease 4) Same disease must be found in the diseased experimental host The Chemistry of Microbiology element, and explain how these terms relate to one another - Matter- anything that takes up space and has a mass - Smallest chemical unit of matter is -atoms - Element is made up of a single type of atom - Therefore the smallest unit is an atom and a bunch of the same atoms are called an element and an element is matter because it takes up space and has a weight molecules and compounds - Electronegativity means the pull an atom has on electrons the higher the number the stronger the pull EN gets higher from left to right and get lower as you go down, polar means there is little to no EN, so it is shared equally, when it is polar one has a stronger pull so it’s closer to the stronger side - one or more atoms lose electrons and other atoms gain them in order to produce a noble gas electron configuration, the bond is called an ionic bond. - - Atom that took an electron now has a full neg charge and the one that lost it has a full positive charge.
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