BIOL 3150 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: World Health Organization, Petri Dish, Industrial Microbiology

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Published on 12 Sep 2012
School
York University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 3150
Professor
1
Microbiology and Pathology
Objectives for Lecture Test #1
** Everything in notes or specific sections assigned from the book
Chapter 1
Know the definition of Microbiology
Specialized Area of biology that deals with living things too small to be seen without mag-
nification
Know the types of organisms studied and their branches of microbiology
-Bacteria = “Bacteriology”
-Virus = “Virology”
-Fungi = “Mycology”
-Algae = “Phycology”
-Protozoa = “Protozoology”
-Helminths (worms) = “Parasitology”
Applied Microbiology
Health science industry= drs & nurses that diagnose & care for individuals with disease
Immunology= study the immune chemicals and cells produced in response to infection
Public health/ epidemiology= monitor and control the spread of disease in the communi-
ties. ex World Health Organization (WHO) & Center for Disease Control (CDC)
Food/dairy microbiology= practical roles of microbes in food or dairy
Biotechnology & industrial microbiology= use microbes metabolism to produce product
Genetic engineering/ recombinant DNA= deliberately alter genetic makeup of a microbe
to produce a human hormone or drug
Bioremediation= the use of microbes to help clean up toxic products in the environment
Know the two metric scales used to measure both bacteria and viruses
Bacteria = micrometer = 100 um - 1um need light microscope
Viruses = nanometer = 200nm - 1nm need electron microscope
Understand the two theories on how living things arise
-Spontaneous generation (Abiogenesis) = living things will suddenly appear from nonliving
matter
-Biogenesis = living things arise from other living things of the same kind
Which scientist was given the honor of disproving that theory?
Louis Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation theory
Be able to explain Pasteur’s other contributions to microbiology
-Discovered there were microbes in the air that contaminated open broths
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1
-Developed special heating process to kill bacteria without changing the flavor of wine
-Wrote that a specific microorganism would cause a specific disease, causative agent
Know Leewenhoek’s contributions to microbiology
-Developed a single lens, hand held microscope
-Father of bacteriology and protozoology
Know Koch’s contributions and his postulates
-Developed many of the lab techniques used today: isolation, inoculation, media, pure cul-
tures, microscopic preparation
-Proved germ theory of disease
-Came up with postulates to prove specific agent or disease
Koch’s Postulates:
-microbe must be present in every case of the disease but absent from healthy organism
-suspended microbe must be isolated and grown in pure culture
-same disease must result when the isolated microbe inoculated into a healthy host
-same microbe must be isolated again from the diseased host
Which organism did Koch first identify as an etiological agent of a dis-
ease?
-Anthrax: Bacillus anthracis
What is taxonomy?
-a formal system for organizing, classifying, and naming living things
What is taxa?
-levels of classification; 8 descending ranks into which all living things are organized
Know the order of the taxa
-Domain
-Kingdom
-Phylum
-Class
-Order
-Family
-Genus
-Species
Be able to tell the contributions of Aristotle, Linnaeus, Haeckle, Whittak-
er, and Woese to our taxonomy
-Aristotle = 2 kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae
-Linnaeus = developed binomial system of genus, species
-Haeckle = 3 kingdoms: Protista, Animalia, Plantae
-Whittaker = 5 kingdoms: Monera, Fungi, Protista, Animalia, Plantae
-Woese and Fox = 3 domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
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What is the binomial (two-name) system?
-The method of assigning the scientific or specific name
Know the three Domains and 4 Kingdoms that your book prefers to use
(1.17, pg 22)
Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Know which Domains or Kingdoms contain prokaryotic or eukaryotic or-
ganisms
-Domain Bacteria = prokaryotic
-Domain Archaea = prokaryotic
-Domain Eukarya = eukaryotic
Know how to write a scientific name
-Genus is written first, species second
-Genus is capitalized, species is lower case
-Both genus and species are underlined or written in italics
Chapter 3
Be able to list and describe the 5 I’s
Inoculation= introduce bacteria into broth/solid media with the use of a loop or needle
Incubation= the placement of the inoculated media in a specific temperature for a set time
to allow for growth of the bacteria
Isolation= isolate a single colony on a petri plate to obtain a pure culture
Inspection= observe the growth of bacteria and the results of stain and biochemical tests
Identification= use the results of tests and Bergey’s Manual to identify the genus and
species of the microorganism
What I uses Bergey’s Manual?
Identification
Know the terms:
-pure culture = one microbe growing in culture medium
-mixed culture = more than one microbe growing in sample or culture medium
-colony = a mound of cells each arising from the multiplication of a single cell
Understand the two ways to classify culture media and types of each
classification
-Physical
-Liquid media: watery consistency, called broth, used in test tube, no gelling
agent
-Semisolid media: soft consistency, used in test tube, small amount of agar
-Solid media: solid, used in test tubes or petri plate, large amount of agar
-Functional
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Document Summary

** everything in notes or specific sections assigned from the book. Specialized area of biology that deals with living things too small to be seen without mag- nification. Know the types of organisms studied and their branches of microbiology. Applied microbiology: health science industry= drs & nurses that diagnose & care for individuals with disease. Immunology= study the immune chemicals and cells produced in response to infection. Public health/ epidemiology= monitor and control the spread of disease in the communi- ties. ex world health organization (who) & center for disease control (cdc) Know the two metric scales used to measure both bacteria and viruses. Bacteria = micrometer = 100 um - 1um need light microscope. Viruses = nanometer = 200nm - 1nm need electron microscope. Understand the two theories on how living things arise. Spontaneous generation (abiogenesis) = living things will suddenly appear from nonliving matter. Biogenesis = living things arise from other living things of the same kind.

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