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BIOL 3200- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 132 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 3200
Professor
Jan Sapp
Study Guide
Final

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York
BIOL 3200
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIOL 3200
Lecture 1
TWO WORLD VIEWS
- Charles Darwin convinced the scientific world of evolution in the 19th century
- Scientists say that today the universe is 10-20 billion years old, earth in 4.5
billion years old, life arose 3.5 billion years ago
- hominids appeared 4 million years ago
- Homo sapiens appeared 130 000 years ago
Intelligent Design:
- assumes that earth is only several thousand years old
- geologists have showed that the earth has experienced immense changes and
fossil records show the existence of many extinct forms that were here longer
than thousands of years ago
Traditional natural theology: (emerged in 17th century)
- God formed all species as they appear today, species have no hereditary
relationship between them
- Aristotle and Plato proposed the hierarchy of life, simple inanimate objects at
the bottom, humans at the very top
- sala aturae or great hai of eig, uderstood i ters of differet kids
of souls
- Evolutionary theory states that all species have genealogical relationship, and
they resemble a branching tree instead of a ladder or a pyramid
Teleology: organisms and their natural relations can only be explained by purpose
or by design, or by the final outcomes
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- you basically explain a certain action by their results
Darwinian Evolutionary Theory
- there is no design in the natural world, no preconceived plan
- everything that has developed has been based on the conditions of the natural
world
- Theology placed humans above nature in the image of god, whereas Dari’s
theory places humans within nature in the animal kingdom
REVOLUTION TO EVOLUTION: JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK
- Laark’s ie o eolutio happeed durig the Freh Reolutio
- Before the revolution, French society had a static hierarchical order
- uprising in 1789 changed this, and the revolution was over by 1804
- ending of the revolution had inspired the belief of freedom and equality, caused
a liberal way of thinking
- During the revolution, Lamarck had a career shift as a prof and was to classify
animals
- While classifying he started to explore questions and thought processes
regarding evolution
- 3 convergent interests that led him to evolution:
1. Thoughts about what constituted the essence of life in simple organisms
2. His ie of the atural a to arrage taa
3. His interest in geological thinking (gradual changes over long periods of time)
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