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[CHEM 1000] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 164 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1000
Professor
Donald Hastie
Study Guide
Final

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York
CHEM 1000
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Gases
Macroscopic vs Microscopic
Macroscopic
Properties of bulk gases
Observable: pressure, volume, mass, temp.
Microscopic
Properties at molecular level
Not readily observable: mass of molecules, molecular speed, energy, Collison frequency
Pressure
To hold gas, you must have a gas capable of exerting a force on it (E.g. walls of balloon)
Gas is exerting a balancing force on the container
Pressure= force/area
Measuring Pressure
To measure gas, have it balance a liquid. Need to quantify the liquid pressure
-Consider cylinder of liquid q/ area(A) & height (h)
-Force exerting at bottom of cylinder is weight F=m(g)
-Pressure exerted is P=F/A = m(g)/ A
-Density of liquid is d=m/V so m=V(d) V=A(h)
-So
Barometer
To measure Atmospheric Pressure
Left Tube is open
Right tube is closed & liquid column is supported by atmospheric pressure
Air pressure=liquid pressure
So for barometer: P=g(h)(d)
- P= atmospheric pressure
- H= height of liquid column
- d= density of liquid
Fo aoete P=ghd, e hae ostat g & d. Atosphei pessue is popotioal to height. Height
can be used to describe pressure
Liquid (mercury) responds to the difference in gas pressures
Atmospheric Pressure
Average pressure at sea level will support a column of 760mm of mercury
Definition of pressure unit of atmospheres : 1 atm= 760mm Hg
Unit mm Hg is known as Torr
1 atm= 760 mm Hg= 760 Torr
What is 1 atm in pressure units?
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Q: If we made a barometer out of water, what would be the height of water column if pressure is 745 torr? Relationship
b/t pressure & height
Measuring Gas Pressure
Gas pressure measured w/manometer. Like barometer but measures pressure differences using liquid
Gas Laws
Ai is to deteie elatioship /t gas oseales pessue, olue, ass, tepeatue hih’e
determined experimentally
Boyle’s Law
Boyle kept mass of gas & temp constant. Studied relationship b/t pressure & volume
Found that pressure & volume are inversely proportional (double pressure & volume goes to ½)
Expressed by
Charles’s Law
Charles & Gay-Lussac kept mass of gas & pressure constant. Studied relationship b/t temp & volume.
They found
Exp shows temp & volume are linearly related & temp intercepts (when volume is zero) was at -273.15 C
This temp is defined as absolute zero &wa Kelvin temperature scale given by T(K)= t( C) + 273.15
Chales’s La/ Coied Gas La
Charles Law can be expressed as V/T= constant
Coiig Bole’s La & Chales Law
Aogado’s La
From Gay-Lussa’s epeiet o eatig gases, Aogado oluded Eual olues of diffeet gases, at the
same temperature & pressure, contain eual ue of oleules
Take 2 equal volumes of gas. They have equal number of molecules. Add them together, you have twice the
volume & twice the molecules
Hence gas volume is proportional to number of molecules & to number of moles
Volume is directly proportional to mass, moles, molecules
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