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Exam Review - Semester 2

by Anu J
14 Pages
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Communication Studies
COMN 1000
Rob Heynen

Key Topics in Communication Studies (COMN 1000 Semester 2) Aird Commission - Known as “Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting” 1929 - Conclusion: Canada in need of a publicly-funded broadcast system - The Aird Report led to the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, precursor to CBC Alternative media - Alternative information; different set of values, objectives and frameworks - Alternative viewpoint to existing issues - Differ from mainstream media on various fronts: o Content o Aesthetics o Production o Distribution o Audience relations - Different aims/causes: o Represent marginalized groups o Challenge existing powers o Community-specific - Different forms: o Radical/dissident media o Social movements o Ethnic/cultural o Indigenous o Sub-cultural o Student media o Avant garde (advance guard); innovative, experimental Applebaum-Hebert Committee - 1980 “Federal Cultural Policy Review Committee” - Committee's mandate was to investigate and represent the situations and needs of those thought to have an active interest in our culture and its institutions o Improved means of arts funding o Culture topic assigned to Department of Communications Berne convention - Protection of literary and artistic works - International agreement first accepted in 1886 Switzerland - Does not require formal registration; automatic copyrighting rules - Main components o Treat international authors like domestic authors (give them same rights) o Minimum years of protection for copyrighted work (i.e. 100 years) Citizens’ media - Produced by private citizens who are non-journalists - Examples include: o Blogs o Vlogs o Digital story-telling o Radio broadcasts o Participatory video - Boomed with technological advancement o Regular citizens got a forum to express themselves to the world at large  Youtube  Tumblr - Higher credibility of private journalists and citizen media o Better than corporate media  Corporate media trying to make money  Citizen media trying to make a statement - Supports media democracy Canadian content - Stuff produced in Canada - Not necessarily about Canada, but produced by Canadians in Canadian state of mind reflecting Canadian values and for the general Canadian audience Community/ethnic media - Type of alternative media - Examples include: Bollywood and Nollywood - Reflective of important issues to the represented culture/community - Localised news (produced and distributed) o Example: “From the team closer to home” CTV Barrie Concentration of ownership - When one company or conglomerate owns a market - When a market is monopolized because the company has too large a market share - See “media conglomerates” Convergence - The merging of various communication technologies into a single platform o Available altogether on Internet:  Music  Television  Blogs  Social networking Cross media ownership - A media company (or umbrella corporation) owns multiple companies in radio, tv, travel, theme parks, etc. - 2+ media in same market - See “media conglomerates” and “concentration of ownership” CRTC - Federal agency that enforces rules and regulations of Telecommunications Act - Pertaining to broadcasters and telecommunications companies in Canada - “Canadian Radio-television Telecommunications Commission” Cultural sovereignty - Right, freedom and means of expressing one’s own culture through media - See “Massey-Levesque commission” - The capacity for a state or group to govern its own cultural activities independent from interference from other groups o Forming social policy o Establishing laws Digital divide - Refers to the division of knowledge/information (and subsequently power) that results from people not having access to technology - Exclusion from social, economic, political and cultural benefits otherwise now brought about by digital media and media technologies - Anti-democratic and unfair Digitization - Representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal in a digital way o Binary code o Sent through air waves or cables, etc. Disintermediation/reintermediation - Disintermediation = cut out the middle man o Remove intermediate steps o Shrink the supply chain  People can buy things straight from the manufacturer - Reintermediation o Reintroduce the intermediates o Example: Amazon shipping to local convenience stores now Documentary film - Nonfictional motion pictures intended to document some aspect of reality - Purpose: o Instruct someone to do something o Maintain a historical record o Make a point - Kind of plays out like an argumentative essay would Economy of scale - The principle that the more of something you produce, the less it costs to produce each next product - Talk about fixed and variable costs (and average cost per product produced) Elections and media - Social media and in general, new media, connects politicians to the public - Public access to information - Media gives politicians a farther-reaching voice o They still do rallies, etc. but in a rally, they reach 100 people (plus 200 who are watching from home and not physically present at rally) - New media like debate monitors o Give public opinion immediately after politician says something o Instant analysis (broadcasted on coverage networks) and feedback for politician - See “horserace” Externalities - Social costs or social benefits that cannot be numerically calculated - Economic term - Must assign a value to externalities to find the total cost of something o Example: building a nuclear power plant  Cost = factory + labour, etc.  Externality cost = nuclear waste, deformed births, radiation  Benefit = nuclear energy  Externality benefit = Canada seen as powerful country with assets Fair dealing/fair use - Fair dealing (Canada) vs fair use (USA) - Pertains to copyright laws and digital media and stuff - Canada: o Can’t make copy of works to use for class set in teaching o Can’t show movie/video in class without permission o Have to pay royalties to the copyright owner Foreign ownership of media companies - Issue of autonomy - See “cultural sovereignty” - Foreign ownership means no community media o External ideologies o Irrelevant ideologies o No scope for participatory media o Media as a social and political vehicle in the country essentially disabled - See “concentration of media ownership” Fowler commission - See “CRTC” Free flow of information - Rights of producers to sell info to anyone anywhere - The right of any individual to receive info from anywhere, any source Gatekeeping - Control of access to media publication/broadcast - Based on identity or character of media outlet o Example: a family television channel can’t broadcast taboo stories Geostationary satellites - Satellites above the equator - Stay in the same position relative to earth Globalization - How the world has become smaller through communication technologies - Space and time barriers minimalized - Shrinking globe - Global village Government ownership - Crown corporations - Government owns certain parts of the market o Subsidized o Offer employment o Run at a loss o Work for the public good - In media, government ownership signals types of alternative media… will allow more viewpoints (aimed at citizens) to be shared o Focus on empowering citizens, not on corporate profit Holistic vs. prescribed technologies (Franklin) - Holistic technologies o Used by artisans, creative people o Everything they create is unique o They are in control of the process from start to finish - Prescriptive technologies o People are not necessarily in control of start to end process o Broken down into small tasks of standardized steps o Introduction of division of labour through industrial revolution  Menial step-by-step tasks  No satisfaction associated with getting the entire job done - Few other principles o Technologies are a comprehensive system o Technology involves organization, procedures, symbols, new words, equations, and a mindset o Work-related technologies aim to make work easier o Control-related technologies aim to take control of the process at hand Horizontal and vertical integration - Horizontal = one company steps into multiple markets and market shares o See “media conglomerates” and “cross media ownership” - Vertical integration = company owns all aspects of production/distribution of that one thing i.e. a magazine o Writers o Researchers o Editors o Printers o Photographers o Marketers o Distributors Horserace - Refers to media coverage of elections - Trying to predict the outcome of an election - Example: o Not horse race: article about politician’s economic policy o Horse race: article about why certain voters are angry about politician’s economic policy - See “elections and media” Information economy/society - Everything based on information - Labour force now filled with knowledge workers, not hard labour workers o Soft skills > trades o Trades still important, but focus on brain-work rather than body-work - Information available freely, without regulation, to many more people - Economy functions independently o Everyone gets their own information (product research) o Buys online or in-store (whatever they want) Long tail - Type of distribution graph where majority of results are in the “long tail” rather than the “head” or predicted bulk of the matter - In terms of media, people make choices more widely because they have more availability of choice - The norm is not the norm anymore - Uses in application, research and experimentation Massey-Lévesque Commission - Known as “Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences” 1951 - Regarding Canada’s cultural sovereignty from USA; Canada is threatened by USA culturally and socially - Massey Report recommended the creation of cultural institutions including o National Library of Canada o Canada Council for the Arts MacBride commission - MacBride report “Many Voices, One World” o India, Indone
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