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Exam Notes-Winter Term.docx

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York University
Communication Studies
COMN 1000
David Skinner

Page 1 of 5 Globalization and the information society (basically the same thing) -technology key to development of globalization (move capital and factories), ICT central in coordinating globalization- the sale, production, and distribution around world Global economy: -economic recession- focused on cheap labour to maximize profit- industry moving to ‘poorer’countries (Mexico/China…) where there are little environment regulations (NIC) and is cheaper Information economy: because of the ICT; transfer of investment capital (profit) and tech Technology transfer- factories investing capital being moved OIC- restructure ICT NIC =loss of jobs (sold back to OIC) -production-> delivery of products ICT= communication technology information -Cycle/diagram: OIC transfer of investment capital-profit AND technology transfer NIC (new industrialized countries) transfer of manufactured-products/goods -production side: new companies in OIC create equipment and software (ICT); distribution side: comodification of exchange of information transfer of information/investment capital/profit Issues of Globalization/Info Society: -restructuring of industry- control centralized in organizations): OIC industry workers losing jobs/hours; exploitation of workers in NIC -workers can't afford to buy products producing, deskilling (in NIC)-replaced by service spectra (McJobs) where not same level of respect /pay standards like from factory days -tech leads to comodification of info, which creates digital divide; copyright; privacy -economy of scale/lack of cultural sovereignty Technology transfer= export of technology from OIC (favouring OIC) Communications technology is a social form: technological development is a product of specific economic and political decisions by industry and policy makers (government and industry)-for specific uses. Technology= thing -knowledge needed/techniques about what the thing does; its place in a larger social process or context/function (Langdon Winner) Examples of specific media technologies: Telegraph: method for signalling over distance, co- ordinating action between different centers (goods to markets..)for industrial industry Internet: created for the military to have a computerized network, then was commercialized Critical theory: theory that people have choices in the development of technology in its shape, use, degree/manner its used and its impact on society. Technological determinism=theory that states that technology determines social direction and form-society, but doesn’t take into account the larger factors like economy and politics (example: the Internet will democratize the world- untrue since some people cannot access the Internet because of larger societal reasons) Technological imperative= development doesn’t determine direction, but leads/points the way (prescriptive, holistic) -both tend to abstract technology from social context Information technology (social form), developed by technology Holistic: requires care; favours individual creativity (worker controlled) Prescriptive: implemented assembly line to create profit for factory owner at worker’s expense (relation of power; serves the capitalist system and the domination of one group (capitalists) over another group (workers) political tool for conformity (obedience in society- cars needed, laws, roads); new technologies built to eliminate [productivity of] workers Ursula Franklin- “Modern Times” -technology used as power relation prescriptive broader set of goals for factory but not for benefit of workers; shift from full time to part time work; skilled industrial jobs to low skilled service; efficient cheap labour; ‘division of labour’ Page 2 of 5 Broadcasting Act- 1932: radio. 1936: CBC.1958: TV. 1968: cable, CRTC. 1991: satellite Aird Commission/Report= highest commission from the government, setting up a government owned company to promote the production of Canadian programming-national identity and the east/west flow of radio broadcasting-information, established to solve problems 1928 Aird Commission: component of broadcasting 2. International wavelength allotment 3. Advertising 4. Canadian content 5. Ownership Aird Commission: radio spectrum- binds country together –government promotes flow of information and national identity 1938 Aird Commission: Canadian content–expects private stations to produce Canadian content Bill C-58: passed in 1976: Amendment to Income Tax Act to stop border broadcasters (also benefits to newspapers and magazines--if advertise in medium that isn’t Canadian owned, then not tax deductible - which keeps money in Canada) -ad revenues stay in Canada but CRTC still struggles to get private stations to spend profits on program production BBG-Board of Broadcast Governors=> the new regulator after the 1958 BroadcastAct (when CBC becomes a competitor to the private sector) National Film Board: mandate to represent Canada to Canadians, produces un-commercialized films (doesn’t compete with the private sector)-resulting in needing money from the government CP=Canadian Press= centralized largest news gathering organization in Canada- cheaper for journalists to get information from this source then to send out their journalists to get a story CRTC= created to regulate cable (broadcasting) by 1968 BroadcastingAct, a group independent of interference from other governments/groups, that regulates the TelecommunicationAct- interferes and interprets legislation to ensure that the aims of Parliament are being met by: controlling entry to the field (licensing) and setting terms for those companies operating there (making sure that showing enough diversity, balance, Canadian content)- and polices these goals Concentration of ownership= consolidation of ownership of a number of media organizations by relatively few large corporations Private corporation= one /small number of companies control a large portion of an industry 1) Chain/Horizontal ownership- company controls a string of companies in same business but in different locations/market companies in same business operating different markets (owning radio, TV, newspaper in same industry 2) Vertical integration- company controls companies that supply and/or consume each other’s products-owning entire production process (film production/distribution-dvd rentals- Hollywood studios) 3) Cross- media ownership- one firm in one industry owning a firm in another industry (CTV GlobeMedia) 4) Conglomerates- one company in the media industry owning holdings in an unrelated business outside/within the cultural industry (stores, sports teams, newspapers) 5) Monopoly- lack of competition in a given market—in Canada: have smaller companies not able to compete with the 3 major companies by regulations 6) Oligopoly= when a small number of producers own more than 2 mediums and each controls the supply of a commodity (price) (Bell, Rogers, Telus) In Canada- highly concentrated: Cons: government need regulations; less jobs for journalists- more stories, less time; audience- fewer choices for information and entertainment—lack-of diversity; harder for other companies to break into the monopoly; too much political power; profit driven since need money to pay for their debts- less jobs.. ; advertising Page 3 of 5 price put into service –already paying; cultural production becomes profit driven- dumbing down (appealing to audiences); commercial restraints- conflict of interest of what say (interests/beliefs of company) Pros: efficient- produced digitally; save costs- content on one can be used in another medium; quality lacking; beneficial for advertisers and creating demands for profit, introducing citizens and needed products; free/low cost to consumers- more profit =more Canadian content if regulated by government/public service- economy of scale Crown corporation- a government owned company, to do what private sector companies won't do since not profitable (CBC) Ownership: Public= crown corporation, mandate driven Community/not-for-profit (stays within station not going to private owners) = mandate driven Private= Small: closely held shares –owner driven (small book publishers, magazines) Large: publicly traded, profit-oriented corporations (CTV Globe Media, Rogers, Shaw) CRBC- established as government department created to undertake network responsibilities and to produce Canadian programs in 1932, controlled by the government, financed by license fees and advertising revenues (from US programs to cross-subsidize Canadian productions)- to do what private sectors won't do since not profitable CBC financing- funded by government, grants, ads, taxes, is a crown corporation CBC mandate and responsibilities- government doesn’t control day-to-day operations; public broadcaster- not profit, public interest Canadian content= defined by reference to a specific set of criteria designed to encourage the production of Canadian cultural materials by Canadians Split
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