BBG: Broadcasting Board of Governors The Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) is both
the name of the independent federal agency that oversees all U.S. civilian international media and
the name of the board that governs those broadcasts.
Bill C58: Passed in 1976 by parliament. It is an amendment to the income tax act to stop border
broadcasters. Basically, Bill C58 removed tax deductibility benefits for Canadian Corporations
advertising on American stations. Also benefits magazines and newspapers.
Broadcasting Act: 1932 Radio, 1936 CBC, 1958 TV, 1968 Cable, 1991 Satellite
CBC Financing: comes from government funding (taxpayers), advertising, and subscription fees
CBC mandate & responsibilities:
The 1991 Broadcasting Act states that...
"...the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, as the national public broadcaster, should provide radio
and television services incorporating a wide range of programming that informs, enlightens and
...the programming provided by the Corporation should:
• be predominantly and distinctively Canadian, reflect Canada and its regions to national and
regional audiences, while serving the special needs of those regions,
• actively contribute to the flow and exchange of cultural expression,
• be in English and in French, reflecting the different needs and circumstances of each official
language community, including the particular needs and circumstances of English and French
• strive to be of equivalent quality in English and French,
• contribute to shared national consciousness and identity,
• be made available throughout Canada by the most appropriate and efficient means and as
resources become available for the purpose, and
• reflect the multicultural and multiracial nature of Canada."
Characteristics of Canadian Content:
Characteristics of the Canadian state:
(Forms of) Concentration of Ownership:
Conglomerate: A company that contains within it many companies carrying on a variety of
business not necessarily related to one another, a media conglomerate does the majority of its
business in the media; a general or nonmedia conglomerates has it's foundations in nonmedia
Copyright Act: Legal framework governing the right to reproduce a published work. Communication Policy: Policy which laid down by international regulatory bodies and national
and regional governments to ensure the media serve not only their owners and content creators, but
individual citizens and society as a whole.
CRBC: Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
CRTC: Canadian RadioTelevision and Telecommunications Commission
Crown Corporation: Crown corporations are peculiar hybrid entities somewhere between a
government body and a private enterprise. They are wholly owned by the state but operate at arm's
length from government. Crown corporations are created to advance certain policy objectives and
in this sense are "instruments of public policy," but some of them also have to operate in a business
capacity, meaning they have commercial interests and competitive pressures to contend with that
can, at times, conflict with their policy mandate. They are generally created to fill a need the
government feels is not being met by the private sector, which is either unable or unwilling to
provide certain services the government deems necessary or in the national interest. (ex. Canada
● Business owned by federal or provincial governments but operating at arms length from
government as individual corporations. (Mohammeds definition)
Cultural Imperialism: the ways in which one culture imposes ideas and values on another culture.
Media and cultural products are primary vehicle for such imposition.
Cultural Sovereignty: consumer sovereignty is the assertion that consumer preferences determine
the production of goods and services.
Digital Divide: the increasing difference in the development & use of information &
communication technology between rich & poor countries & between the haves & havenots
within a specific society
Digitalization: refers to the process, applicable to any medium, whereby the content of that
medium is converted into computer readable format and can be manipulated and transmitted
electronically. This allows content of formally separate media (newspapers, radio, television, etc.)
to exist side by side on the internet on a way previously impossible.
Effects Research: research conducted to see the direct impacts of the media on human behaviour
Economy of Scale: The cost advantage that arises with increased output of a product. Economies
of scale arise because of the inverse relationship between the quantity produced and perunit fixed
costs; i.e. the greater the quantity of a good produced, the lower the perunit fixed cost because
these costs are shared over a larger number of goods.
Fourth Estate: The media: refers to the role of the media in watching over the other powerful institutions in society.
Gatekeeping: the control of access of media publication or broadcast that determines what gains
access according to identity or character of the media outlet
Free Flow of Information: The doctrine that advocates that rights of producers to sell information
to anyone, anywhere, & conversely, the right to any individual to choose to receive any
information from any source. It favours countries with the largest economies of scale; generally
Geostationary Satellites: Geostationary satellite is used for satellite TV, weather forecasting,
satellite and radio communications. The perfect spot to park a stationary satellite is at precisely
22,300 miles above the equator where the force of gravity is negated by the centrifugal force of the
Globalization: The process by which social, political & economic relations extend further than
ever before, with greater frequency, immediacy, & facility
1. holistic: holistic technology are normally associated with the notion of craft such as porters,
weavers, metal omits or cooks etc. here their hands and minds make situational decisions as the
work proceeds. Holistic technology doesn't mean people don't work together but the way in which
they work together leaves the individual worker in control of particular process of creating or doing
2. Perspective: also know as specialization by process is based on a totally different division of
labour. Each step is carried out by a separate worker or group of workers who need to be familiar
only with the skills of performing that one step. That is what is meant normally by the division of
Harold Innis (time/space bias):
1.Space Bias notes the tendency of certain communication systems & societies to privilege the
extension of ideas over space or distance opposed to time or history
2.Time Bias notes the tendency of certain communication systems & societies to privilege
extension of ideas over time or history as opposed to space or distance
Information Economy:sets the bases of new industrial society
Media Imperialism: the use of the media to build empires of influence & control. Generally, the
domination of one country or regions media by another country or region.
Mandate: an official order or commission to do something or give (someone) authority to act in a
Monopoly: A market which is dominated by one single corporation. NWICO: New World Information and Communication Order
Oligopoly: A market which is dominated by a small number of corporations.
Public vs. Private Ownership:
1. Public ownership by armslength government agencies eg the CBC, or by groups of
individuals, eg, cooperative, which members of the public can join for a token membership fee.
Public ownership contrasts to commercial or private ownership of commercial companies, some of
which are publicly traded and therefore called, in business circles, or public companies
2. Private ownership by individuals or corporations,including of publicly traded companies, as
opposed to public ownership
Royal Commission: high level inquires established by governments to investigate problems &
Sign: (1) a physical form (a word, gesture, even an object like a rose) used in communication to
refer to something else (an object, a feeling) and recognized as such; (2) the totality of
associations, thoughts, understandings, or meaning brought about by the use of symbols in
reference to an object, person, phenomena or idea
Signified: The mental concept of what is referred to – for instance, an object as we think of it when
we hear a word (image of a table when we hear the word “table”)
Signifier: The physical form of the sign, for instance symbols such as words
Synergies: The concept that the value and performance of two companies combined will be
greater than the sum of the separate individual parts. Synergy is a term that is most commonly used
in the context of mergers and acquisitions. Synergy, or the potential financial benefit achieved
through the combining of companies, is often a driving force behind a merger. Shareholders will
benefit if a company's postmerger share price increases due to the synergistic effect of the deal.
Convergence (different types): generally, bringing together once separate information
technologies. 3 types: technical, corporate and commercial
Technological Determinism: the notion that technology is an autonomous & powerful driving
force in structuring society or elements of society
Technological Imperative: the notion that technological developments provide form & direction
to social development
Technology Transfer: the transfer of a particular technology from one society to another. Usually
exporting technology to developing countries (ie. Nike shoes made in China but sent here for us to
purchase) It tends to favour the countries where the technology came from (NICs depend on OICs
for markets) Telefilm: telefilm's role is to foster the commercial cultural and industrial success of Canadian
productions and to stimulate demand for those productions both at home and abroad. It finances
and promotes dozens of projects through it's various funds and programs. It is crown corporation.
Theories of the Press:
1) Libertarian theory a political theory that views the sole purpose of the state