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York University
Communication Studies
COMN 1000
David Skinner

COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide BBG: 1958 Broadcast act B/Aand new regulator: Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG). CBC becomes “competitior” to private sector Branch plants: • factories set up in Canada to produce parts of the products and finish in Canada – branch plants in Canada (westing house in Canada). part of the manufacturing takes place in Canada but not all, creates jobs as well. as they grow in Canada, they can make their own products hoping to import to other countries. So no longer subordinate Bill C-58: 1976 parliament passes Bill C-58, amendment to the Income TaxAct to stop border broadcasters (Also benefits to magazines and newspapers). If you are an advertiser, you cannot advertise in america and deduct it from taxes, has to be a canadian owned advertising company to keep the money in Canada; broadcast act is Canadian owned due to ownership regulations by govt; 80% of newspaper income come from outside source, never had to put ownership regulations bcuz of BILL C-58; KEY to keep advertising in Canada). 1976 parliament passes Bill C-58, amendment to the Income TaxAct to stop border broadcasters (also benefits to magazines and newspapers) Broadcasting act: SHADE: 1932, the govt of Canada introduced the first broadcasting act. Revised as each technology was introduced. It sets out objectives for Canadian broadcasting generally and for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) specifically. It specifies the composition of the CBC’s board of govenors, the creation of the broadcasting regulatory agency Canadas broadcasting act assigns social responsibilities to all licence-holders, including minimum Canadian-content regulations and special additional responsibilities for the public sector. 1932 = radio, 1936 = cbc, 1958 = TV, 1968 = Cable, 1991= satellite, 1990’s = DTH satellite, 2000’s = internet 1958 BroadcastAct B/Aand new regulator: Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG). CBC becomes “competitior” to private sector mid 1980’s: tech change and increasing demands from interest groups means new B/A so in 1991, new broadcasting act (see gSL 219-221) Section 3 and it sets out the aims and purposes of the system but then in the early 1990s system under attack from “death stars” (video) to meet threats of mid – 1990s satellite broadcasting, CRTC: licensed more pay-tv and Canadian satellite broadcasters for both cable and satellite distributors allowed increased concentration of ownership and crossmedia ownership (allow private sector to buiold economies of scale) backed off on regulation (become more flexible e.g 150% Canadian content for Canadian drama CBC financing: CBC mandate and responsibilities: COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide Characteristics of Canadian context: Characterisitics of the Canadian state: because of large size of canada and small population, difficult to wring profits from business in canada and govt often had to step in to encourage private investment. E.g CPR (Canadian pacific railway) was issued government payments and subsidies to encourage the building of the transcontinental railways. Similarily bell telephone was given a monopoly on long-distance telephone serve in canada to exploit economies of scale. both federal and provincial govts frequently underook these activities themelves, in the form of Crown or government owned corporations. i.e canadas second national railroad, served to bolster service to some areas, not served by CPR, government owned + first satellite company – Telesat Canada. Canadas first transcontinental airline- air canada – crown corporation - and first national broadcaster – CBC. because of unique features of Canadian state, government taken strong hand in shaping economy. Federal level -> motivated by strong nationalist sentiment. distinctive characteristics of Canadian State that have shaped the development of its communication system: vastness of the country and small size of its population and Canada’s regionalism. Geographic/demographic facts pressed canada to incest in expensive national transmission systems to keep in touch. Country of regional cultures. ‘confederation’eacj region needed to generate its own info such that regions particularities might be reflected to a whole, helped bring country together. Canada is also a nation of 2 official languages; French and English. Also have freedom of language choice. Bilingual govt services and broadcasting channels = testament to the right of any canadian to work/live wherever they wish. BILANGUAL COUNTRY Common carrier: (p 215) Telecommunications services provided to all members of the public at equitable rates; a common carrier is in the business of providing carriage services rather than content (forms of) concentration of ownership: concentration of ownership? One company or a small number of companies, control a large portion of an industry. FORMS: Chain or horizontal ownership: company controls a string of companies in same business but in different locations … (newspapers, radio stations, tv stations, chapters/indigos) vertical integration: copany controls companies that supply and or consume each others products… ( mcdonalds’s/cattle ranches; newspapers/pulp mills; cable companies/speciality channels; film production/distribution) cross-ownership: companies in more than one medium (sometimes same city/market) e.g shaw, CTV, globe media conglomerates…. Holdings in seeminly unrelated activies (e.g dept stores, sports teams, newspapers( conglomerate: holdings in seemingly unrelated activities (e.g dept stores, sports teams, newspapers) (private ownership) COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide Conglomerate ownership is characterized by large companies with a number of subsidiary firms in related/unrelated businesses.Advantages of scale. Shareholder risk is reduced because conglomerate is not dependent for its profits on any one industry. Convergence is the name given to the economic strategy media congomerates emply in an attempt to create synergies among their media properties. One of Canada most converged conglomerates in Quebcor Inc. owns 20 daily newspapers, 34 non dailies, magazines, shopping guides.Also in the businesses of television, telecommunications and cable distribution, new media, publishing, retailing refers to the process by which one company in a field buys up other companies in the same field. E.g when one newspaper or newspaper chain buys other newspapers, the press industry is undergoing conglomeration. The process is characterized by fewer owners and larger corporations. Supporters of conglomeration claim that it is a desireable business practice that’s protects jobs and brings stability to the marketplace. Opponent s claim that it confers too much power on dominant owners who can shape our knowledge of events to suit their interests copyright act: the copyright act is ignored as retailers and distributors import books even when the territorial rights belong to a Canadian-based publisher. Each copy bought through parallel importation is one less purchased from the Canadian rights- holder, reducing the utility of Canadian copyright copyright: the exclusive right to reproduce a work requiring intellectual labour; this right belongs to the author and its constitutes; 1) a property right, which may be assigned to others and 2) a moral right, which may not be assigned but may be waived CP: Canadian pacific CRBC: Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission CRTC: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Crown corporation: businesses owned by federal or provincial govts, but operating at arms length from govt as individual corporations Cultural imperialism: the ways in which one culture imposes ideas and values on another culture, with the effect of undermining the cultural values of the recipient; media and cultural products are a primary vehicle for such imposition Shade: the process whereby the cultural artifacts of a politically and economically dominant power – usually the US – enter into another country and eventually dominate it, thereby spreading the cultural, political, and other values of the dominant power, to the inclusion of indigenous values and voices COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide • Cultural sovereignty: do we get what we want or just what we are offered. Consumers decide what will be sold to them somehow. In terms of media, no one asks u what u want to see, just offer u stuff. Don’t ask what kind of cars, groceries, films etc u want to see. Predetermined set/range of products. If u want to see a Canadian move really reflect Canadian perspectives, impossible, because range of products predetermined before because they only offer you products that they think they can make money off and will be profitable. E.g reality tv shows: no one wanted amateur actors competing to do things for money. over last 15-20 years, only so many tv shows available; ctv, global, cbc, cbs, abc, nbc. Particular range of programming people would watch at that time. Fragmentation of audience: less money available to each tv networks available for programming, thus reality tv shows cheaper to produce than these networks. Rate of advertising did not increase as fragmentation of channels, now increased range of mediums, thus advertising fell. Much cheaper to get amateur actors then high end actors, thus reality tv much cheaper to produce. Thus had to change marketing traditions. If show isn’t watched, show will be off the air, consumer sovereignty is highly constrained. • Digital divide: refers to the fact that socioeconomic factors, including income and education levels , geographical location, gender, age, influence participation in the new media environment.As a result, richer people and countries have greater access to and make greater use of , new media and the internet than do poorer people and countries, a situation that has led to the creation of the categories of the “information rich” and the “information poor”. “Digital divide” also refers to the view held by many that digital technologies not only confer benefits but also contribute to social inequalities. E.g not everyone has equal access to digital technology and even among those who do, not everyone is equally competent in using it. iNFO TECH IMPACTSAND ISSUES (4 on exam) Commodification of info: creates “digital divide” Two groups of info poor (cant afford it); i) here at home (rural, low income, poor/ no web access) ii) in “developing” areas/countries (e.g countries inAfrica, south east asia) • more generally: “the right to know or the right to information, makes possible all other rights” (UNESCO) Unemployment and deskilling • been a shift from fulltime to partime work; from skilled industrial jobs to low skilled service jobs; often implemented in “prescriptive” manner. Disturbing trends. Privacy • I/T threatens in several ways: i) unsolicited marketing; ii) health and credit records; ii) law enforcement/state surveillance; iv) workplace monitoring • at the heart of issue is "self-determination”. The more info other have about you, the more your choices are constrained Sovereignty and representation • because of the economies of scale involved, is a growing reliance on foeign, mainlyAmerican data bases and data services. Raises two issues: i) Canadian vulnerable to trade sanctions and bankruptcies, therby undermines ability to control livlihoods COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide ii) information is not value neutral (re: imported education; studies, reports etc) Conclusion: • some ICT has potential for increasing public access to info, but primarily developed in pursuit of private economic gains • "benefits" of the technology could not have been realized without changes public policies such as copyright legislation, trade regulation, labour law, and telecommunications regulation • consequently, ICT not autonomous or an inevitable force in society but a complex social form Digitalization: refers to the process, applicable to any medium, whereby the content of that medium is converted into computer-readable format and can be manipulated and transmitted electronically this allows the content of formerly seperate media – newsprint, radio sound, television images, hypertext links – to exist side by side on the internet in a way that previous impossible. Digital media also posses greater storage capacity and higher transmission speeds and permit infinite nondegraded reproduction of the original content. They tend also to be more user-friendly and to heighten the opportunity for the individual creation, manipulation, storage and transmission of content. In doing so, digitization has raised questions about copyright control and the ownership of intellectual property that have pitted individuals against corporations. modern mass and new media are a set of technological configurations that bring us info and entertainment in a variety of forms. Print-> newspapers, magazines, journals, books, mass/quality paperbacks, hardcovers, textbooks, school books, etc! Tv-> public, community, educational, commercial tv Radio-> delivered broadcast, cable, internet and satellite by diverse array of stations Films/non-theoretical films Recordings-> vinyl, audio cassettes, cds, mp3s, dvds erc With ongoing digitalization of info and different forms of media convergence, current technological configurations are in a state of flux • Effects research: (1930’s - ); looked direct media effect on audience members (S>R) aka. Hypodermic needle model; transportation model. Never proved anything: communication is much more complicated and interpret in different ways, must look at broader social complex to understand what ppl make of social perspectives, about larger social history of receiver. It still persists today in media and violence. Media & what ppl think. Downplay agency in media. COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide Still persists through perspective today. E.g 1) media and violence (esp. children/teenagers): we live in a violent world, violence against women, spanking/beating, road rage, television promotes; sports. 2) agenda setting perspective: (less direct) the media doesn’t tell us what to think but tells us what to think about. E.g crime, broadcasts crime but we don’t understand why crime is. 3) gerbners cultivation analysis (media “cultivate” or promote particular perspectives). The more ppl saw violence on media, the more they thought the world was a violent place. Promotes particular attitudes.All 3 draw straight line between what goes on in the media and what goes on in peoples head. Downplay agency. • Economy of scale: Efficiencies in costs that can b achieved via repition of some aspects of the production and distribution processes. E.g the reduction of the per-unit cost of printing 10000 copiees of a book once the presses had been set up, opposed to printing 1000 copies. goods are more expensive of US in Canada= ECONOMIES OF SCALE!!!* population of US is larger in Canada, the more products you make the less it costs. E.g stoves = 10, 000, 000 , for tech, assembly line, workers, building etc for factory to produce. Even if labour is 5.00, electricity is 1.00, the technology is 5.00, so 11.00 for the cost of the stove. Yet for first stove = 10, 000, 011, yet make a million stoves, each costs for 10, 000 000, each costs $10! Plus more to make more. Fourth estate: The media; refers to the role of the news media play in the governing of a democratic society, originated with journalists struggle to gain access to the proceedings of the British parliament in the late 19 C; watching over the powerful institutions in society. Gatekeeping: ***Gate keeping: news reporter/editor acts as gate keeper on world of events and audiences and open or close to certain events: certain logics in how some are seen to be seen as news and some aren’t. (gatekeeper: news editor= what is important and not) Mr. gates = news editor very important need certain values. Because world is so complex, news producers choose whats important (gate keeping) Free flow of information: the doctrine that advocates the rights of producers to sell info to anyone anywhere and controversially, the right of any individual to choose to receive any info from any source Geostationary satellites: An orbit situated directly over the equator in which objects (satellites) rotating around the earth remain in a fixed location relative to the earth Globalization: refers to the process in which formerly separate, discrete or local phenomena are brought into contact with one another and with new groups of people. This contact generates the idea that the world is a single place. Supporters of globalization claim that it liberates populations from loval or particularistic rules, generates wealth, makes possible the movement of the people and ideas and contributes to the development of human rights by putting all people in touch with all other people. Critics of globalization claim that it flattens out cultural differences, spreads a single culture (usuallyAmerican) to all areas of the world, and strengthens capitalism and unequal property relations. as we have seen, the form and direction of tech. development and application is the product of decisions by industry and policy makers COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide e.g in canada, globalization and the info society created by:NAFTA, WTO, CRTC and policies like copyright Similarily, job losses, cutbacks in health care and education part of same restructuring given info tech is social form and its development is the product of decisions by govt and industry, the question is how it is being implemented? (Holistic or prescriptive) Government ownership: Holistic/prescriptive technologies: what relationships does it have with larger social forms or practices Other perspectives book outlines several common perspectives… i. “Instrumentalism”: tech as value neutral tool (e.g cup, plane, car) ii. "technological determinism:”: technology determines social direction and form (e.g like innis Oral form of comm = time bias; literate form = space bias. Info tech yields info society). (similar to substantivism) (e.g sateliite start globalization. Tech reinforces social forms) iii. “Technological imperative:” Tech development doesn’t determine direction but leads or points the way they tend to abstract tech from social context and “reify” technological development leads to iv. “ constructivism” or the idea that tech is given form by a larger set of social forces and one more v. franklins holistic vs prescriptive. Technology as a power relation “holistic” favors individual creativity and autonomy (worker controlled, control how to make the item the way they please) "prescriptive" favors a broader set of inst. Or org. goals at the expense of indicidual autonomy (tasks set for workers are prescribed or given to them) (crafts person vs. assembly line worker) (chair is all the same) reason for implementing assembly line to create profit for factory owners – not empower workers hence, the assemnly line is a relation of power in that it “prescribes” relationships between: I ) what people do; and ii) between the owners and the workers. The way it is constructed prefigures or prescribes these relationships…. Charlie chapman movie: Q: is the factory/assembly line holistic or prescriptive? a: definitely outside the control of the workers; taskare prescribed or set down before hand.Also the the tech is a particular relation of power serving the owner of the plant. at a larger level, also serves the capitalist system and the domination of one group (capitalists) over another group (workers) in summary: we have seen several different perspectives on technology; i) as social form (constructivism); ii) technological determinism/imperative; iii) tech as relation of power (holistic vs prespcriptive) COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide  Harold Innis (time/space bias): Harold Innis and marshall mcluhan were the first scholars to have serious attentions to the idea of the ways in which people communicate might actually shape a society/culture. Innis (1950) claimed that oral communication tends to maintain cultural practices through time, while written communication favors the establishment and maintenance of social relations through space. Innis argued that each communication medium had particular bias:  Oral communication emphasized rather close knit society and preservation of outlooks, values and understanding over long periods of time. Have time bias  Written communication emphasized basic social control across space (e.g roman law across the entirety of the empire) Space bias. Mcluhan took up innis’s ideas and extended to modern period Information economy: Media imperialism: Mandate: Monopoly: exclusive control over the supply of a particular product for a specified market; a market in which consumers have a single source for a product or service NWICO: (New world information and communication order) During the 1970s the movement of the non-aligned nations (NAM), which compromised over 90 member nations, questioned the rise of commercial transnational media systems (TNCs) in terms of 1) the global economic imbalance between the north and the sourth; 2) the western monopoly of global news services with their content focusd mainly on developed countries; and 3) the dominance of news and entertainment programming that, because it reflected often0alien western values, was deemed imperialist. These issues culminated in the call for a NWICO. In 1976 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) convened the MacBride Commission to study global communication issues and develop solutions for ameliorating the North-South divide. Its final report, Many Voices, devoted to eliminating the media imbalances between countries; protecting th rights of journalists; reducing commercialism in the media; use of the media to aid oppressed peoples; and recognition of the freedom of the press and freedom of info Oligopoly: Public vs private ownership: Central difference between the public and private forms of ownership relates to the question of return on investment If private enterprises are interested primarily in a financial return… public enterprises seek other kinds of return: cultural development, industrial development, job creation, national identity formation etc Public ownership is devoted to providing communication as some kind of public service based upon public goals: to enable citizenship, to foster a sense of community on regional and national scales, to promote regional and national cultures Private ownership is devoted to providing communication for profit COMN 1000 Winter Term Exam Study Guide The idea of public service is to emply the mass media for social goals. This can mean the provision of universal and equitable service to all Canadians, as in the telecommunication, postal, radio, and television industries.Also foregrounding the educational component of communication, which informs all cultural policy to some extent. Or it can mean ensuring a cnaadian voice in film, radio, tv, publishing and popular music, where there has been/remains a clear risk of being drownedout by American voices. Communication as a public service is inclusive, addressing audiences as citizens rather than as consumers and asserting the citizens’rights to communicate and to be informed In Canada, public service often meant national service – ie. Communication in the service of nation-building. in the broadcasting sector this has meant the subordination of other social and cultural goals to national economic and political interests, specifically ‘ the project of maintaining “Canada” as an entitiy distinct from the US and united against the periodic threat of disintegration posed by quebec’.Also meant the concentration of film, radio, television services in central Canada, creating a hierarchical distinction between the ‘national’ preoccupations of Ontario and quebec and the ‘regional’concerns of the other provinces and territories the central ethic of the public corporation is connected to the democratic ideal. It is to provide a public service to both the users of the service and to the population as a whole. Private enterprise operates on user-pay basis The users of of public service do not pay the full cost of providi
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