March 29, 2014
BBG: The Board of Broadcast Governorswas a Canadian arms-length governmentagency created in 1958 by
amending the Broadcast Act to regulate television and radio broadcasting, originally taking over that function
from the CBC. The BBG was replaced by the CRTC in the 1968Broadcasting Act.
Branch Plants: Subsidiaries of foreign companies (e.g. Ford Canada, GMC, General Electric Canada) ---> import
parts, assemble products in Canada.
Bill C-58: Broadcasters could not put adverts into an American company and claim incometax on it.
Broadcasting Act (1932,1936,1958,1968,1991): The Broadcasting Act sets out objectivesfor Canadian
broadcasting generally and for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation specifically. It specifies the composition
of the CBC's board of governors,the creation of the broadcasting regulatory agency (CRTC), content rules, and
CBC financing: Prior to television,CBC was financed by licensing and advertising. They used revenues from ads
on US programs to cross subsidize. When televisionbecame popular, they were financed by tax on imported
parts and programs.
CBC mandate and responsibilities: Not for profit media are mandate driven.
- Predominantlyand distinctively Canadian
- Contributing to a shared national consciousnessand identity
- The purpose of CBC is to push Canadian content onto Canadian's screens and help contribute to and
develop and shared national and cultural identity in Canada through the media
Characteristicsof Canadian Content:
- Legal definition of material that has been developed by Canadians, or contains Canadian information.
They are designed to encourage the production of Canadian cultural materialsby Canadians.
- The CRTC ensures that broadcasters show pre-dominantlyCanadian media. However,Hollywood
productions are always available, cheap, and are popular with viewersas well as advertisers. Private
broadcasters tend to dislike this Canadian content quota and have sought to reduce the amount of
Canadian content they show.
- There are funds such as the Telefilm Canada's Broadcast Program DevelopmentFund, which encourages
independent producers to create high quality shows to make it easier for Canadian producers to create
content and get airtime.
Characteristicsof the Canadian State: very large area and small population; morethan 90% of Canadians live
within 200 km of the Canada-US border, so lots of cultural influence coming over the border in terms of...
everything: fashions, singers, movies,books, magazines, etc. (and the US is the largest producer of media
products in the world); Canada has a less defined culture, especially with two official languages and strong
French culture in Quebec... and of course because the US has such a massive media industry, they have much
better economiesof scale and that's why Canadian media distributors would rather buy content from the US
rather than make their own in Canada.
Common carrier: Telecommunicationsservices provided to all members of the public at equitable rates; a
commoncarrier is in the business of providing carriage services rather than content. (Forms of) Concentration of Ownership: The consolidationof ownership of a number of media organizations by
relativelyfew large corporations.There are a number of different types or forms of media concentration,such
as horizontal or chain ownership, vertical integration, and cross-mediaownership.
Conglomerate: A company that contains within it many companies carrying on a variety of businesses not
necessarily related to one another: a media conglomeratedoes the majorityof its business in the media; a
general or non-media conglomeratehas its foundation in non-media firms.
Convergence (different types): A bringing together of the once separated communicationtechnologyinto a
modern media form. Three types:
1. Technical (merging of technology)
2. Corporate (concentrationof ownership, companies take advantage of economiesof scale, bringing
3. Commercial(bundling companies together for marketing purposes, i.e. phone and internet services)
Copyright Act: Legal frameworkgoverning the right to reproduce a published work.
CP (Canadian Press): Canadian Press (CP) is a wire news service that provides mainly news and other media
content for broadcasters and newspapers. Up until 2010, CP was a non-for-profit new co-operativethat supplied
both print and broadcast news to its newspaper, radio, and televisionmembers. Since then, it has been
privatized and sold to its three largest membercompanies: Torstar (publishes Toronto Star), Gesca (La Presse),
and CTVglobemedia(The Globe and Mail). Canadian Press dispensed news on the local, regional, and national
scale, providing news coveragethat local stations could not provide.
CRBC: The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commissionwas created in wake of the overwhelmingspillover of
American programming into Canada. Its purpose was to build a national broadcasting network and create
Canadian programming. It was introduced with the 1932Broadcasting Act.
Crown corporation: Businesses owned by federal or provincial governments,but operating at arm's length from
governmentas individual corporations.
Cultural Imperialism: The ways in which one culture imposes ideas and values on another culture, with the
effect of undermining the cultural values of the recipient; media and cultural products are a primary vehicle for
Cultural Sovereignty: The capacity of a state or group to govern cultural activity - i.e., form policy, establish laws
and conventions - independent of interference from other governmentsor groups.
Digital Divide: The (increasing) difference in the developmentand use of information and communication
technologybetween rich and poor countries and between the haves and have-nots within a specific society.
Digitalization: Informationand Communicationstechnologieshave been adopted by the media industries.
Digital media technologiessuch as televisions, cameras,and computers essentially do the same thing -
transform informationinto digital form. Digitalization can be connected to convergence.
Effects Research: Studies after WWI show that media has direct effects on human behaviours and that it was
fuelled by propaganda during wartimes.This research indicated that most people would believe what they saw
and read in the media. It concluded that people during this time were vulnerable and gullible to what they saw
in different forms of media.
Economy of Scale: Efficiencies in costs that can be achieved via repetition of some aspects of the production and
distribution processes and the elimination of other processes. (e.g. reduction of per unit cost of printing 10,000
copies of a book once the presses have been set up, as opposed to 1,000 copies.)
Fourth Estate: The media; refers to the role of the media in watching over the other powerful institutions in
society. Gatekeeping: Controlling access to media publication or broadcast, and determines what gains access according
to the identity or character of the media outlet.
Free Flow of Information: The principle by which information collected by governmentsbelongs to the people,
rather than the state; this is the operating principle in the USA.
Geostationary satellites: An orbit situated directly over the equator in which objects (satellites) rotating around
the earth remain in a fixed location relative to the earth.
Globalization: The processes by which social, political, and economicrelations extend further than ever before,
with greater frequency, immediacy,and facility.
i. Holistic: artisan, independently made
ii. Prescriptive: like an assemblyline, everyoneis assigned a task and is cut off from the larger picture of
creating the product
Harold Innis (time/spacebias):
i. Time bias: Noted the tendency of certain communicationsystems and societies to privilege the extension
of ideas over time or history as opposed to space or distance
ii. Space bias: Idea advanced by Harold Innis, which notes the tendency of certain communicationsystems
and societiesto privilege the extension of ideas over space and distance rather than time or history
Information Economy: A society in which the production, distribution, and consumptionof information takes on
growing and significant political, economicand social importance.
Media Imperialism: The use of media to build empires of influence and control.
Mandate: An official order or commissionto do something.
Monopoly: Exclusive control over the supply of a particular product for a specified market;a marketin which
consumers have a single source for a product or service.
NWICO: During the 1970s the Movementof the Non-Aligned Nations (NAM), which comprised over 90 member
nations, questioned the rise of commercialtransnational media systems(TNCs) in terms of (1) the global
economicimbalance between the North and the South; (2) the Western monopolyof global news services with
their content focused mainly on developed countries; and (3) the dominance of news and entertainment
programming that, because it reflected often-alien Western values, was deemed imperialist. These issues
culminated in the call for a New World Informationand CommunicationOrder (NWICO). In 1976UNESCO
convened the MacBride Commissionto study global communicationissues and develop solutions for
ameliorating the North-South divide. Its final report, Many Voices, One World, was issued in 1980. Among its 82
recommendationswere those devotedto eliminating the media imbalances between countries; protecting the
rights of journalists; reducing commercialismin the media; use of the media to aid oppressed peoples; and
recognition of the freedom of the press and freedom of information.
Oligopoly: Form of marketin which the industry is dominated by a small number of sellers. Can lead to higher
costs for consumers and lower competition.(e.g. Rogers, Telus and Bell share over 94% of Canada's wireless
market;Rogers, Bell, Shaw, and Telus control the internet service provider market)
Public vs. Private Ownership:
i. Private:Ownership by individuals or corporations,including publicly traded companies, as opposed to
ii. Public: Ownership by arm's length government agencies, e.g. the CBC, or by groups of individuals, e.g. co-
operatives,which membersof the public can join for a token membership fee. Public ownership contrasts
to commercialor private ownership of commercialcompanies, some of which are publicly traded and
therefore called, in business circles, public companies. Radio Sp