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Communication Studies
COMN 2111
Dalton Kehoe

Interpersonal communication model – identify key concepts including self-feedback loops IP communication diagram Seven axioms of interpersonal communication IP communication is: - Inevitable, irreversible and unrepeatable - Is a process of ongoing adjustment over time - Always contains relationship and content dimensions - Is complementary of symmetrical in effect - Is always seen by each participant as a series of punctuated events - Is a transactional process - Is always about one or both parties needing to be or feel right when faced with difference, disagreement or disorder Culture is: - A way of life that is learned and shared by groups of human beings and taught by one generation to the next Culture consists of: - knowledge – how world is constructed and works (including language) - Values – most important goals worth achieving - Symbolic expression – means of communication (including language) Denotative meanings Connotative meanings Meanings are created in context Words and non-verbals interact Meanings are relational – words arise out of the moment, out of our connections to other people Non-verbals and meaning - Most of meaning in face to face talk is in the way we talk not in the words themselves - In the way we look while we’re talking o In mehrabian’s famous study, when people weren’t sure of the words they were hearing - they could still get the meaning o Facial gestures create 55 per cent of the meaning impact on others - And the way we sound o And the sound of our voices create 38% of the impact on others - Non verbals communicate emotions using the same two channels o The way we speak  Sound of voice, pitch, variability  Speed, articulation  Emphasis o The way we look  Basic human emotions are communicated through facial gestures - We have two minds - Conscious minds – focuses on the denotative meaning o Its work is effortful, slow, controllable and flexible o Rational thought and problem solving work - Non conscious mind – o Works in a completely different way than the conscious mind o Works effortlessly, fast (operates in milliseconds), automatically (uncontrolled), and is o Rigid in its judgments - Three key functions of the cognitive unconscious o Supports rational decision making (doesn’t all happen in the conscious mind) o Constantly evaluates world around us (allows us to feel or sense what’s going on instantly) o Can initiate action in sophisticated and efficient manner (because it can anticipate what is going to happen next in the next moment) - It has no words so it communicates through small surges of emotional energy in the body - Emotions and meaning (essay) o Emotions: body-based communication  Instant biochemical (+) or (-) reactions in the body to changes in the situation o Non-verbals then verbals  We react first, think second  Diffuse psychological arousal  Non-verbal displays o Emotions and cognition  Our conscious mind interprets changes in the body as feelings  If these feelings last longer than the situation that aroused it, they are called moods  And they can affect our thinking (cognition) o When emotions take over completely – before the conscious mind can intervene – we have what is called “an amygdala hi-jack”. It is described as a  Quick  Very strong reaction  Involving inappropriate behavior o We may be unaware or unaccepting of our feelings and lack skills to express them o Being able to name them helps us to communicate them, so we can follow Plutchik’s circumplex model (learn diagram) - Effective expression of emotions o Although non-verbals are mostly out of immediate conscious control o We can choose to become conscious of ad regulate our emotions (avoid hi-jacks) and o Express our feelings (the cognitive aspect of our emotions) more effectively. Here’s how:
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