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COMN 3250 (1)

Communication Policy 1 exam notes

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Communication Studies
COMN 3250
Sonja Mac Donald

Political Economy of CommunicationThe different social and power approaches different political perspectives takeThe study of social relations particularly power relations that mutually constitute the production distribution and consumption of communications resourcesAn example of its feature is social totality and the idea of being holisticHarold Innis StructurationHolds that all human action and policy is informed by a preexisting social structure which is governed by a set of norms and laws which are distinct from those of other social structures The repetition of the act by individuals reproduce the structure Structures that exist today were constituted out of human agency even while they provide the very medium of that constitutionExample of this is the UBB decision made by the CRTCshows what policy over the years has left us with Unregulated actions of larger telecos have led to this situation Marriage is still a structure but there can be changes to what is acceptable within the structure gay marriages become legalThese social structures are not always permanent and they can constrain actions of individuals as the UBB decision demonstratesNeo LiberalismContemporary dominant political perspectiveView that endorses the domination of market forces and seeks to maximize the role of private sector in determining political and economic priorities of world while minimizing the states role fundamental role to establish a safe environment It also focuses on individualism and private property rights The media is privately owned and is a watchdog of the state Example of privatized media are Fox News America or Sun TV Canada that holds mainly rights of the consumer and not necessarily of the citizen Even though all are entitled to right of fair and quality service by the telecom providers it is best left for market to determine how these things happen Forbearance is also an example of neoliberal propheciesThis view brings forth problems for Canadian Content regulations as it believes this will stifle competition in the marketplace it does not hold the rights of the citizen as priority which can be damaging for a distinct Canadian identity and national sovereignty Pluralismdominant ideological perspective for most of the 20th centurysociety is made up o f competing interests vying for access to power decision making based on marketplace of ideas Elites exist but not uniform group and do not govern absolutely because of public processes communication as public sphere where public opinion is reached supports public broadcasting and regulated communication sectorExample many sections of Broadcasting 1991 eg Public ownershipof broadcasting resources radio frequencies are public property CRTC public hearings diversity of opinions The public has actively shaped principles and parameters of the broadcasting legislationpolicy making not a neutral process informed by different competing perspective world view that influences existing policy regime in Canadianinternational replaces by neoliberalism as dominant ideology Radical DemocracyMost unpopular ideological perspective in North AmericaThis view is critical of both the pluralist and neoliberal views Unlike pluralists they say there are levels of inequity carry through in all aspects therefore making the public sphere impossible Quality participation and cooperative decision making is needed to serve the interest of the public through alternative media essentially community focused media and public service broadcasting State should actively take a role in providing equal access to communication resources so that all can partake in decision making even though there are elites who exploit and oppress those in subordinate positionsPublic service broadcasting and most importantly community TV and radio are examples of alternative media that support radical democracies They have a grassroots up approach that starts from and with the people and not top down that gives elites all the power in decision making The issue presented by radical democratic is that the state continues to being privatized and is caught under regulatory capture In attempting to regulate large communications companies they themselves become controlled by the government This concept is demonstrated in Babes myth of the efficacy of regulation This is an important and relevant concept radical democracies bring up when looking at the Canadian landscape that is dominated by a system of monopoliesGovernanceA sum total of mechanisms national and supranational formal and informal that aim to organize media systems according to the resolution of media policy debates It is a contemporary phenomenon that shifts power towards supranational levels as well as to the development of nongovernmental organizations It is broader spatially and instrumentally than regulation and refers to informal mechanisms not only formal binding rules Vertical governance refers to different levels of decision making from regional national and international Horizontal governance refers to different forms of governance within a national systemtakes place across levels of governmentAn example of horizontal governance could be statutory CRTC coregulatory CBSC or selfregulatory CAB Vertical governance examples include organizations such as World Trade Organization World Intl Property Organization and ICANN Nongovernmental supranational organizations have begun to have a great impact and influence on media The agencies mentioned above have led to the emergence of the term global media governance that shifts focus from a national regional perspective to an international one more or less organized around the United Nations Statutory Coregulation SelfRegulationAll refer to the ways in which policies can be implemented and by whom certain regulations are influencedStatutory law is written and is passed by the state itself Coregulation is a partnership between industry powers and state authorities that informs legislation Selfregulation refers to industries regulating themselves Statutory regulation examples are the Broadcasting and Telecommunications Act CBSC is an example of coregulation where the CRTC and the industry work on the rulesAn example of selfregulation are the Canadian Association of Broadcasters who represent Canadian private broadcasters Media policy
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