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Study Guide

[CRIM 1650] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 45 pages long Study Guide!

45 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 1650
Professor
Danny O' Rourke- Dicarlo

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York
CRIM 1650
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
What is crime?
Lecture 1 intro Notes
In the absence of law there is no crime
Law provides us with security
o It allows us to keep our promises to one another
o The presence of a neutral
o 3rd body state
We authorize the state to act on our behalf
o Law is a command that is issued by the state and requires or
active obedience
We obey the law because law is backed by a punishment
What makes the law legitimate?
o Your liberty must be consistent and the same as others
o Good law should give you reason not to do something
Forces the state to justify its self
o If a state cannot justify is reason it is problematic
You stop at a stop sign because it gives you good reason to act,
good reason to stop
Laws involve orders that any reasonable people will agree to,
reasonable people would never consent to their own murder rape
assault or robbery.
o E.g.: Slavery
No reasonable would consent to be treated as
someone elses tool
o Law stabilizes our institutions
o Law is a socializing device
We have the potential to be good but good is a
historical process
We are all born with a lack of self control as we age
we wrestle with self control
o Law should give you reason to act but it should socialize you
to have the impulse control to act like an adult and not a
toddler
Mortality is learned
o Through public institution
We law doesnt feel personal or heavy handed law is there to
guide us
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Rules are imposition to be broken
Why people commit crime?
o Best theory to explain; the more complex the more open the
better the theory
The criminal law is incapable of addressing the reason
of crime
o Crime is a matter of fight
Why do people fight with one another?
Why do people see others as less?
First cause of fight
o Predators
o Retribution
o Defense
o Honor, a feeling that your reputation is
threatened
They all exists within an unending
circle of violence
LAW demands not harshness but consist detectable and fairness
o Law loses its claim to your obedience is it is not like this
Lecture 1
Perspectives on Deviance
The best academic way of studying deviance is to not
Social norms values has to be: its reviseablilty- we need to have a
conversation of why ex. Pornography
o The best way to approach is the sue of the criminal law,
public sentence
o Why is it problematic to address this issue?
Just because you punish someone doesnt mean its
done, anytime we try to punish this crime the desire is
still there
Deviance shifts from cultural to cultural
Can we universally speak of deviant
o Cultural differences, whats accepted in some country may
not be accepted here
Crimes which or mala en se
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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York CRIM 1650 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com What is crime? Lecture 1 intro Notes  In the absence of law there is no crime  Law provides us with security o It allows us to keep our promises to one another o The presence of a neutral o 3 body state  We authorize the state to act on our behalf o Law is a command that is issued by the state and requires or active obedience  We obey the law because law is backed by a punishment  What makes the law legitimate? o Your liberty must be consistent and the same as others o Good law should give you reason not to do something  Forces the state to justify its self o If a state cannot justify is reason it is problematic  ▯You stop at a stop sign because it gives you good reason to act, good reason to stop▯  Laws involve orders that any reasonable people will agree to, reasonable people would never consent to their own murder rape assault or robbery. o E.g.: Slavery  No reasonable would consent to be treated as someone else▯s tool o Law stabilizes our institutions o Law is a socializing device  We have the potential to be good but good is a historical process  We are all born with a lack of self control as we age we wrestle with self control o Law should give you reason to act but it should socialize you to have the impulse control to act like an adult and not a toddler  Mortality is learned o Through public institution  We law doesn▯t feel personal or heavy handed law is there to guide us find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Rules are imposition to be broken  Why people commit crime? o Best theory to explain; the more complex the more open the better the theory  The criminal law is incapable of addressing the reason of crime o Crime is a matter of fight  Why do people fight with one another?  Why do people see others as less?  First cause of fight o Predators o Retribution o Defense o Honor, a feeling that your reputation is threatened  They all exists within an unending circle of violence  LAW demands not harshness but consist detectable and fairness o Law loses its claim to your obedience is it is not like this Lecture 1 Perspectives on Deviance  The best academic way of studying deviance is to not  Social norms values has to be: its reviseablilty- we need to have a conversation of ▯why▯ ex. Pornography o The best way to approach is the sue of the criminal law, public sentence o Why is it problematic to address this issue?  Just because you punish someone doesn▯t mean its done, anytime we try to punish this crime the desire is still there  Deviance shifts from cultural to cultural  Can we universally speak of ▯deviant▯ o Cultural differences, what▯s accepted in some country may not be accepted here  Crimes which or ▯mala en se▯ find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Self evidently wrong, everyone says so o Ex. Drug use, you choose to do so. Law cannot stop it because drugs are in the market, even though its harder to access it still wont stop it will continue to fail  Mala prohibita o Criminally wrong, the law says so  Deviance like crime is a statically rarity,  Deviance involve normative violation o Deviance is a social construct  Social reaction o Negative response: example: drinking and driving o Tolerant response: homosexuality o Denial response: pharmacy medication o Romanticization: Scarface, Godfather, Narcos o Demonization: people who create child porno, child molesters they are the personification of evil.  Universal definition o Presumed behaviour that o Defines social expectations that o Are made and enforced by people with influence (power) and o Have been applied to particular people or groups in particular situations  Worst outcome that we just accept what we find of being the truth and therefore it must have some reason behind it  Reforming deviance o Lack of self esteem causes delinquent behaviour can result in programs that produce proud delinquents rather than ex- delinquents o Understanding the means, motivation o Impulse also ignores that many kinds of deviance are not as harmful as they are made out to be Lecture 2: Understanding and testing theories of deviance  Objective: find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Understand how similar events may have different causable explanations o Each particular theory will attempt to persuade u that it has the answer  The rightness wrongness of that theory will depend on your assessment o Every theory emphasizes variables and connections through that variable, every theory proposes a causal variable  Dependent variable: people breaking the law o The best theory is the most inclusive theory, one that▯s testable, reliable and can provide us with accurate predictions o Distinguish theories that emphasize and emphatic point of view o Theories that attempt to explain deviance using a scientific method o Ideological theory will attempt to explain deviancy crime then give us options for its control  It has a world view, (i.e.: religious or political) o The classic experimental design that will experiment with independent variables to see what happens o Conclude on the ability to critical see perspective,  Thesis: there is no one truth and there isn▯t one definition of reality, truth and reality will always be dependent on what you are looking 1. Any hypothesis that comes out of left field to explain a massive social trend (i.e. social violence) with a single over looked fact (i.e. abortion) will always turn out to be either misleading or wrong a. Problem unwanted pregnancies increased (Roy vs. Wade) 2. Unemployment rates correlate positively in most peoples mind to violent crime a. Theories are not just persuasive they are destructive  No single theory has managed to stake out a monopoly on truth and it is unlikely that any theory will do so  Theory and explanation: theory differs by the fact that it is more systematic and comprehensive  All social theories have some empathetic, scientific and ideological content find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  We have the investigate what the ideological methods are  Greatest misstep: confusing or blurring like between ▯is▯ and ▯ought▯  Just because a theory has ideological assumptions doesn▯t make it a bad theory  Everything is about ideology is just about what▯s the most persuasive  Empathetic explanations: subjective, attempts to understand the perceptions and decisions of the actor o Negative: Trying to place yourself in someone else▯s shoes in order to understand their motivation, positive: however it forces u to think critically about your own moral o Limitations: sometimes actions are just so bad that it is impossible to put yourself into someone else▯s shoes, its too emotionally packed i.e. child pornography  Scientific explanation: science is not enough, science + environment/social context  Ideological explanations: based on systems of ideas that as held as ▯irrefutable doctrines▯ o Its not good because it answers everything it is usually based on A) its vision and version of human nature, B) its vision or version of what distorts human nature, C) its vision of a social utopia o Don▯t rely on ideological assumptions, once you submit you stop thinking for yourself shows how easily you can be persuaded to support public politics campaign  The formulations of theory: developed through alternation processes of inductive and deductive logic o Inductive: look at many specific cases then make generalizations. i.e. speeding in a low light area with few police, they believe they can go undetected o Deductive: specific expectations from general rules that have been suggested by previous research or existing theory  The 3 components of a theory: o Sensitizing concepts: symbolizes aspects of reality that we particular want to think about (i.e. gang activity). In order for concept to be understood we need to have things that can be measured and tested find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Variables: a concept that can be operationalized by being counted or measured (i.e. age, neglect, low levels of social controls, subcultural learning)  What are the most important in explaining the phenomenon o Hypothesis: a tentative statement of relationships between variables, you're trying to prove your statement (i.e. illiteracy)  ▯Independent▯ variable casual or the experimental  ▯Dependent▯ is the outcome or consequence or something we seek to explain  ▯)ntervening▯ or ▯epiphenomenal▯  Theory should tell us what is worth investigating  General rule: correlation doesn▯t always mean causality o E.g. Poverty cause crime o E.g. pornography cause violence against women or encourages misogyny  Correlation may offer practical solutions without addressing causation o E.g. low level street crime and low level white collar crime decreases with the increased predictability of both detection and rule enforcement  Research must be replicable in order for it to be reliable  Making sense of data: o All always depend on theory construction and will never really catch the ▯truth▯ of a situation o Reality and truth will always be informed by ▯value▯ or the lens through which we see the world o The pursuit of truth is essential to the study of crime and its control but it is also elusive, political and subject to unexamined perspectives and prejudices  Crime funnel: o All crime (dark figure/ detected, undetected) o Detected crime (reported/unreported) o All crime known to police (founded/unfounded) o Cases in the courts (convicted/acquitted) o Convictions o Jails and prisons find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Chapter 5 October 13 TH Biological and physiological explanations of Deviance: The body did it  Positivism (Scientism): o Based on the belief that the methods of natural science should be adapted to the study of human beings. o Knowledge can be discovered only through sensory experience, observation, and experiment  Classical thinkers work was not scientific, either because it was untested by empirical data or because no effort was made to collect empirical data in a disciplined, systematic manner.  Comparison of classical and positivist schools Classical Positivist Time of 1700-1800 1800-1900 dominance Conception of Violation of Pathology, deviance social contract, constitutional crime inferiority, sickness Explanation Free will, Determinism, balance of symptoms of punishment constitutional faults Remedies Swift, certain, Treatment, graduated separation, punishment elimination   Social Darwinism o Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)  ▯Survival of the fittest▯  The more fit competitors win, survive and procreate, while the less fit die out – unless, of course, the fit commit race suicide by not breeding or the unfit (the poor, the criminal, and those with mental illness) are artificially find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com supported by well-meaning but misguided people  Living organisms (human, plant or animal) that can adapt to a particular set of living condition are the ones with the greatest chance to survive  Powerful and rich are always seen as fit  Still the common way of thinking for society today  Mendel and the discovery of genetic inheritance o Gregor Mendel (1822-84)  Studied genes being transmitted by heredity through possible mutation and combination of genes Born Criminal Theory  The idea that criminality was not only inborn but also marked a persons appearance  Criminal anthropology o Possibility that physical features can identify actual or potential criminals o Skull size, body shape, facial features o Science: genes, blood sugar counts, neurochemical markers  Physiognomy o The science of judging character on the basis of facial features o Mostly based on appeals to commonsense understanding  Phrenology o Phrenos= mind o Logos=study  Based on the theory that functions such as cautiousness, firmness, benevolence, mirthfulness, and intellect were located in distinct parts of the brain, and the stronger the functions, the larger their physical manifestations  If a person was cruel or benevolent the dominant quality would appear as a bump in the contour of the skull  Normal persons the higher faculties of friendship, religion and intellect were dominant find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Deviant tendencies might be shown through bumps in the ▯combativeness▯ area of the ▯amativeness▯ ▯sexuality▯ area  Phrenology promised and explanation for every form of criminal behaviour, even in serial killers not in terms of temptation and sin, but in terms of brain defect Craniometry  System of classifying human types on the basis of skull measurement, particularly measurements of its size  Brain that is too larger or too small can be a sign of deviance Lombroso’s ▯criminal anthropology▯  Classified all criminals as ▯epileptoids▯ on a scale in which epileptic was at the top, followed by criminal moral imbecile, born criminal, criminaloid (occasional criminal), and criminal by passion  Some people are born BAD while some people have a greater chance of breaking the rule o Impulsive o Because they are different o Nature is not something that can be changed through nurture  Scorpion and Frog example  Its in the nature of some people to only think of short term o To act rationally and violently  (e didn▯t claim that all criminals were born criminal  Lombrosian theory became a factor in determining guilt or innocence in the court room and in deciding how a convicted criminal should be treated Eugenics  Good at birth  Francis Galton saw selective breeding as the antidote to the social problems produced by the dysgenic effects of the increasing numbers of citizens who were genetically unfit. o Positive eugenics were encouraged find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Negative eugenics involved programs to exclude inferior population (immigration control) Earnest Albert Hooton AND THE HIERARCHY OF DEGENERATION  He argued that crime was the result of normal environmental stress on low grade organisms  Race has an effect on what kind of crime a person would commit  Caucasians into 9 different groups o Pure Nordic  ▯An easy leader in forgery and fraud; a strong second in burglary and larceny and last or next to last in all crimes against the persons▯ o Negroids  Commit a great deal of homicide, are parsimonious in sex offences, and perpetuate a modest amount of robbery▯ William H Sheldon And Somatotyping  Asthenic o Fail, weak  Athletic o Muscular  Pyknic o Short, round  Somatotyping: mapping out relationships among human physique, personality and criminal propensity o Endomorph  Soft, round, easygoing, social able, self indulging o Mesomorph  Hard, muscular, restless, energetic, insensitive o Ectomorph  Lean, fragile, introspective, sensitive, nervous EARLY BIOLOGICAL THEORIES: BASIC PREMISES  Assumption that genetic makeup contributes significantly to human behaviour Early biological theories tended to be highly deterministic EXAMPLES:  Twin studies  If inherited traits cause criminal behaviours, then twins should be quite similar in their antisocial behaviours find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Monozygotic (MZ) twins: identical twins share 100% of the same genes  Adoption Studies  Do children more closely match their biological or adoptive parents? If the biological = support for the biological basis for human behavior  Both twin and adoption studies have been proven to be methodologically unsound A biological Model of Deviance  Heredity (genetic loading) o Defective genes o High sensory threshold o Hormones (testosterone) o Somatotype +  Biological process o Nutrition needs o Allergies o Exercise +  Environmental stress o Available diet o Pollutants (air, noise) o Work demands o Family demands =  Deviance as symptom October 13 th Lecture  )f crime isn▯t a choice then deterrence doesn▯t work o What is the purpose of punishment? find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Punishment is necessary for the well being of society  If crime is a sickness then that means the function of punishment or criminal justice is treated and classification  Biological approach o Excess or lack of o Rules are functional and wouldn▯t exist o Actions happen because of our genes  Relationship between nature and nurture o Nature=pleasure, desire o Nurture +nature= offending is natural  High degree is a problem of nature  Nurture directs or nature so we can cooperate  Contemporary ration choice theory o Criminal justice system is one component in crime prevention  Free will isn’t real  Actions as determined  ▯Prison works for those who will never go to prison▯  Why do some people have self-control and other don▯t?  )t is these ▯forces▯ ▯biological, evolutionary, psychological▯ that determine people▯s choices  Two major perspectives within positivism: Biological and Psychological o What connects both is a) a faith in 'science' to explain crime and offer solutions b) an understanding that crime can be best explained by studying the differences among and between people c) these differences (a result of either biological or psychological factors) predispose people to criminal behaviour  Deviancy seen as a deficiency or pathological (a sign of maladjustment or sickness)  Darwin▯s theory o The origin of crime isn▯t sin, it is cheating  Cheaters that have convinced copies of themselves but the copies are defective  Born criminals were ▯throwbacks▯ o Throwbacks to an earlier and more primitive evolutionary period find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Impulsive are more animals than human o They don▯t know any better  Atavism could be identified by certain physical stigmata and outward appearances (particularly facial:) o Heavy jaw and cheekbones, eye defects, large or small ears, strange nose shape, protruding lips, sloped forehead, and tattoos  LOMBROSO▯S CLASSES OF CRIMINALS o Four major classes of criminals:  1) The born criminal (atavism as the by-product of random genetic mutations)  2) The insane criminal: suffering from various diseases of the mind  3) The criminaloid (a early version of the 'psychopath' or criminal opportunist; difficult to detect because they don▯t look ▯abnormal.▯ They suffer that ability to put themselves in others shoes)  4) Criminal of passion (motivated by love, anger etc., more of a sign of human weakness) Crime and Criminology book Contemporary Examples  Two major strands 1. Field that can be seen as contemporary variant of early psychiatric interest in criminality, a field now encompassing both forensic psychiatry and forensic psychology 2. Theorist that have taken more of an academic approach  Psychodynamic theories have a common link in that a central concern is how individuals learn self control  Freud thinks that humans are impulsive and anti-social o We▯ve only became social by repressing basic desires  Those who offend lack self control  Gottfredson and Hirschi see self control as a single psychological construct o Impulsivity or an inability to defer gratification o Lack of perseverance o Preference for risky behaviour find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Preference for physical, as opposed to mental, activity o Self centeredness o Low threshold for frustration  Eysenck o Behaviour can be explained by a combination of psychological and environmental influences  The differential ability to be conditioned: genetic heritance can affect ones ability to be conditioned genetics determined whether you▯re and introvert or extrovert, this influences how well you▯re able to be conditioned in society  The differential quality of conditioning: effectiveness and efficiency of the family in using the right conditioning techniques  Circular reasoning o Criminality is supposed to be cause by o Impairment and all those in prison are tested as impaired and are by definition criminal  FALSE because  It is not clear  Sentencing should be aimed at rehabilitation rather than deterrence Tutorial October 5 th 6 PSHYCHOLOGICAL/BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS  Mental illness e.g. a.d.d.  Lack of support  Neglect  Depression  Low self control  Anger issues  Revenge (pasted experience)  Cultural/ strict beliefs (honour killings)  Desire  Drug addiction find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com 6 ENVIROMENTAL AND SOCIAL  Unstable community  Unstable income  Gang/ peer pressure/ friends  Media  Government (rebellion)  Seeking acceptance  Unsupervised  Older siblings/parents 6 behavioural why not  Morals  Beliefs  Job opportunity  Religion  Not being easily convinced 6 environmental why not  Jobs  Contracts  Goals  Families, loving home  ▯) have everything▯  government stepping in (after school programs) OCTOBER 20 TH 2015 Reading Chapter 7 Sociological Positivism: The pathology of society Origins of the social disorganization perspective  Sociology positivism emerged when thinkers from various backgrounds (philosophy, theology, political science, and natural science) began to look for regularities in social life, just as natural science had sought regularities in plant and animal life.  Unhealthy physical conditions were matched by the unhealthy moral conditions of the slums▯ inhabitants find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Religion now serves as a motivating factor  The founders of sociology saw society as organism that can adapt to their environments and evolve overtime, and they felt that understanding the laws of social evolution might enable them to influence its course  Emile Durkheim o Social facts are explained by social facts o Societies can be studied like natural organism o Rejected claims that social problems (crimes rates and suicide rates) rely on psychological or biological variables o Deviance is either natural to the social organism or it is a pathology of that organism o Believes deviance is natural and actually helps society to function effectively o Members of a society share a common conscience that holds them together in a state of mechanical solidarity. These people are in agreement with the rules o Mechanical solidarity is transformed into organic solidarity when a population pressure leads to an increasingly complex division of labour  Mechanical solidarity is based on sameness and common values  Organic solidarity is based on difference and interdependence; few common values o Excessively rapid social change (urbanization and industrialization) or inconsistencies produced by crises of war, famine or illness could disrupt the natural adaptive process of society, weaken its levels of integration and regulation, and thereby allows the development of socially harmful (pathological) forms of deviance o Anomie (lack of integration in the group) and o Egoism (lack of regulation by the group)  Both lead to high rates of suicide, and mental illness and crime  Anomic situations people lack firm moral values required to hold them in society o People who▯s lives are not regulated or supervised allow excessive development to egoism find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com The emergence of the Chicago school  1892 o Began is work under the threat of serious urban disorder o Haymarket riot of 1886 was the threat of class warfare, alien radicalism and urban mass violence it sent shock waves through the social classes that supported the university o 35 million dollars from John D. Rockefeller and gifts from the community helped it get back up o Instructed staff not to shock the students mind with knowledge of what has been accomplished in a give field but to train him that he himself may be able to push out along new lines of investigation o Chicago Area Project (CAP) mid 1930s  Attempt to bring organization to disorganized areas  CAP employed local youths (often gang members) to work in recreation programs, community-improvement campaigns and projects devoted to reaching and assisting delinquent youngsters and ex convicts  Local improvements in educations, sanitation, safety, and law enforcement and provided recreational outlets ad summer camping for youth and data for Chicago school research projects The Chicago school Social disorganization theory  Following kinds of change as particularly germane to social disorganization: o Urbanization o Migration o Immigration o Industrialization o Technological change  ▯Disorganization▯ tenr ti included anything that, when compared with the ideal of stable, small-town life, was negative or ▯pathological▯ find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Primary relations: Informal, face to face, personal interactions  Secondary relations: formal, direct, and less personal involving  Chicago school perspective: o The less someone is integrated and regulated by involvement in personally meaningful interdependent relationships, the more likely it is that he or she will engage in unregulated or deviant behaviour Human Ecology  Ecology: science that deal with the relationships of organism to one another and to other factors that make up their environment  Human ecology: study of spatial and temporal relations among people and how they are effective by social and economic competition for space and other resources; human ecology views ethnic groups, occupational changes, and various other user of ▯social space▯ and ▯species▯ seeking individual and group survival in a competitive environment  Human ecology theory of urban dynamics 9 important concepts o Invasion  Introduction of a new group or culture into the territory, not necessarily involving any force. E.g. gentrification o Segregation  The separation of ▯species▯ from one another so that each tends to e concentrated in some areas and absent in others o Natural areas  Unplanned processes; these natural boundaries are rarely entirely consistent with official administration o Conflict  Competition between groups over the use of a territory o Dominance  Strength in one group compared to the other o Accommodations  The weaker group has to adjust to the dominance of others o Assimilation find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Absorbing one group into the way of life of another group o Succession  The takeover by a new group e.g. wealthier people moving into poorer areas o Symbiosis  The interdependence amongst groups, each servicing the need of the other communities From social disorganization to deviant tradition  Disorganization permits deviance to an emphasis on hoe deviant traditions in a community contribute to the maintenance of deviance in ▯delinquency areas▯ which is known as subcultural theory  Thrasher notes that when institution are weakened by rapid social change, two main effects results o Effective legitimate regulation disappears, leaving children and youths free to create their own forms of order o Weakened institution in disorganized environments do not world effectively, which means they are not meeting basic needs  These two set a favourable context for the emergence of delinquent gangs October 20 2015 Mid-term  Short series multiple choice questions in section A that will cover material directly from the lecture o Aspects of the texts that was covered in lecture  Series of definition 8 in total choose 4 o Chapters and topics covered in class o Not critical, just the definition alone o The person who presented us with the topic and to explain the topic  Short answers o 6 short answers choose 3-4 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Comparative, comparing topic within a theory or to one another o Understand the essence of those theories o Identify the key themes and identify on how these theories are  Essay o Scenario topic o Advance in order to prepare Chapter 7 The social disorganization perspective  Society cause and society determines people behaviour o Sociological determinism  Durkheim o is not interested in crime or punishment he▯s interested in ▯what keeps society together? Social solidity▯ o Chicago school ask how does the city cause crime?  Structural functionalism  Society is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability o Social evolution  Why do they change  For Durkheim its because of material changes  E.g.: development of capitalism/industrialization, population growth/density, mass mobility  )f it wasn▯t true to we have these tendencies to push forward (to be more than just farmers etc.) then we wouldn▯t be here right now o What holds society together?  Collective conscienceless of society  Produces social solidarity that is necessary for the survival of any society  What as society as a collective, values, can be moral principals, ethical principals etc. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  As society grows our wants and desires become more plural there more variety o Because of this we aren▯t going to agree on the same principals anymore  Crime has a function it allows us to ally around an issue, what we are willing to accept and what we are willing to say is horrifying  When there is too much crime then there▯s a problem in society this means that there is a lot of people who are no longer buying into the rules  You would have less loyalty to a system of law that is only for one group of people  Law depends on our loyalty  Organic society grows out of mechanical society  Depend on a highly integrated /organized division of labour  We depend on stranger that we do not know  Even though society experiences a lot of change there is still commonality and consistency, the function o flaw enforcement and they way we treat crime as being either healthy of pathologic  Mechanical society  Social groups are isolated from one another  Low levels of social integration between groups  Material production is crudely self-sufficient  Within the groups themselves there is a high level of moral conformity  Solidarity is based on value ▯uniformity▯  Crime/deviancy/opposition threatens uniformity  Function of law: to repress challenges to uniformity o Essence is conformity  What is crime?  Punishment is appropriate because punishment is symbolic find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Conditions in urban environment affect crime rates Chapter 8 October 27, 2015 Functionalist and Strain Perspective  Core of functionalism is the idea that deviance (both the actual behaviour of deviants and the image of deviance shared among people) is a natural product of the social order and may even have positive effects on the system  Functionalist view o Rules and rule enforcement are part of the processes that hold the social system together o May vary from culture to culture o Rules fit with everything else in the social order Structural functionalism  Example: o Medical school produce too many doct
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