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CRIM 2650
Anita Lam

CRIM 2650 EXAM REVIEW SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION II –  No acts/people are inherently criminal  Crime and criminals are socially constructed phenomena  They do not simply exist but are made  What is criminal changes as social context changes SELF-PRESENTATION –  The attempt to present who we are or who we want to believe we are, through our words, nonverbal behaviours and actions. DRAMATURGICAL MODEL OF SOCIAL LIFE –  Course kit pg 157  Social life = theater  On stage = social representation of ‘best possible self’  Backstage = not actively managing ‘role’ (off guard) IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT –  Our conscience our unconscious orchestration of a carefully designed presentation of self, so as to create a certain impression that fits our goals or needs in a social interaction STIGMA –  Process by which the reaction of other people ‘spoils’ normal identity  Situation of an individual who is disqualified or rejected from a full social acceptance due to the possession of a deeply discredited attribute such as (1) bodily abominations/physical deformities (2) weaknesses of individual character (3) race, religion, nationality. MORAL PANIC –  Fundamentally inappropriate reaction by much of society to relatively minor events and conditions  Perceived threat  Metaphor borrowed from disaster panic DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION –  (snow ball effect) + (social reaction) + (deviant activity) = other stigmatized groups/ individuals will + deviance to justify social views towards them MARXIST CRIMINOLOGY –  Crime is function of the capitalist mode of production  Tends to ignore formal theory construction and empirical testing  Historical and descriptive analysis BASE-SUPERSTRUCTURE MODEL OF SOCIETY –  SUPERSTRUCTURE (social institutions such as laws, culture, media, ideology, etc)  BASE (mode of production such as bourgeoisie exploiting proletariat through factories, resources, tools and machines)  Base shapes and determines superstructure  Superstructure legitimates base INSTRUMENTAL MARXISM –  Society is based on an advanced capitalist economy  The state is organized to serve the interests of the dominant to economic class  criminal law is an instrument of the state to maintain the existing status quo DEMYSTIFICATION –  Identification of destructive intent of capitalist inspired and capitalist funded criminology  Identifying the capitalist inspired institutions; used to explain how the state works to preserve working class powers. STRUCTURAL MARXISM –  Law maintains the long term interests of the capitalist system and to any person who poses a threat to its existence SOCIAL JUNK AND SOCIAL DYNAMITE –  Social junk: comes to attention when informal resources have been exhausted or when the magnitude of the problem becomes significant enough to create a basis for “public concern”  Social dynamite: its potential to call into question relations of production and domination. Social dynamite tends to be more youthful, alienated, and politically volatile than social junk. PEACEMAKING CRIMINOLOGY –  Restorative justice  Instead of overthrowing capitalism, it tries to accommodate conflict through various means of conflict resolution such as moral suasion and informal negotiation – aims to build trust and sense of community  Accepts the notion that conflict is root of crime  Conflict is resolved by social bonds  Peacemaking is one of two ways to approach social control; the other is war making FOUCAULT –  Foucault claims power is everywhere, everyone exercises power  Power and knowledge are inextricably linked. Power produces knowledge.  He didn’t believe in “the big T truth”  Knowledge is fluid – knowledge is not a quantity to be accumulated SUBJECTIFICATION –  We are subjects to power (ex. The state, parents, employers) we are individuals with a sense of identity and self-knowledge – humans are made (not natural)  Forces influencing our ‘free will’ : choices are informed by society and culture PRODUCTIVE POWER –  Power is productive  Particularly when it comes to producing knowledge and discourse  Discourse is a historically contingent system of representation that can be true or false POWER KNOWLEDGE –  Power and knowledge are inextricably linked  Knowledge is power  Power produces knowledge  Tied to discourse SOVEREIGN POWER –  Form of knowledge: judicial rules  Key aim; preserving sovereign authority  Key personnel: state officials  Key logics: punishment as key technique internally, warfare as key technique externally  Typical technique: spectacle  Key target: loyal subjects  Brand or destroy the body DISCIPLINARY POWER –  Form of knowledge: norms  Key aim: constituting individuals  Key personnel: experts  Key logics: normalization  Typical technique: observation, examination, surveillance.  Key target: disciplined individuals.  Produce docile and obedient body through training. PANOPTICON -  Power operates as a result of particular distribution of bodies, distribution of visibility and architectural arrangements, irrespective of intentions  Produces self-controlled body; internalize the gaze, behave as being watched  Ideal spatial arrangement: can be produced in other institutional settings FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY –  Liberal feminist – gender socialization – removes obstacles to
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