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CRIM 2650
Anita Lam

CRIM 2650 TERMS REVIEW SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION II Self-Presentation: This is a term coined by ERVING GOFFMAN. Self-Presentation is the attempt to present who we are, or who we want people to believe we are, through our words, nonverbal behaviours and actions. There are times when we want to present ourselves in certain ways to deliberately make a certain impression on other people. This is done through SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONS. Dramaturgical Model of Social Life: There is a metaphor that the theatre can be considered similar to social life. The frontstage is where one actively is presenting a particular self to others. We play a social role that follows a social script, presenting ourselves in particular ways (e.g. on a date acting differently to impress). The backstage is when one is not actively managing or creating a particular impression. This is why we become uncomfortable when people invade our backstage areas – we are unprepared. Goffman believes we are always on stage, which is integral to the creation and maintenance of a social identity. This is more about social identity than social status (so personal attributes, character traits) Impression Management: This is a term coined by ERVING GOFFMAN. Impression management refers to both our conscious or unconscious orchestration of a carefully designed presentation of self, so as to create a certain impression that fits our goals or needs in a social interaction. Stigma: refers to the process by which the reaction of other people ‘spoils’ normal identity. It refers to a discrepancy between our actual social identity (you as you actually are) and our virtual identity (all the assumptions and perceptions that other people have of you). Situation where someone is rejected from full acceptance is known as, what GOFFMAN calls, the deeply discrediting attribute. Three types of stigma relate to this attribute, (1) physically different, (2) unnatural desires, (3) race, nation and religion. Someone who possesses a stigma is seen as someone possessing an undesirable difference from the rest. Goffman believes a person with a stigma is not quite human, so when we see a discrediting attribute, we tend to discriminate against them, resulting in reducing the life-chances of that person. Stigmatized people cope with their reactions by turning to sympathetic others – (1) people who share same stigma, (2) people who are wise in ways of stigmatized person’s life. Moral Panic: Fundamentally inappropriate or disproportionate reaction by much of society to a relatively minor event and condition. STANLEY COHEN – theory of a moral panic based on observations of confrontation between two rival gangs (mods and the rockers – media played a role in demonizing and stigmatizing youth participants). Three elements to a moral panic: (1) condition, episode, person or group is defined as a threat to social values and interests, (2) moral barricades are manned by editors, politicians, moral entrepreneurs who seek to impose vision of what’s right, (3) nature of the deviant incident presented in a stereotypical fashion in the mass media (represented as outsiders or deviants blamed for problems and a reminder of what society should not be. Moral panics have an effect on law- makers, because of a highly fearful general public lobbying for solutions, which are responded with punitive actions justifying the reason for the moral panic. Limitations of moral panic: (1) question of proportionality (how do we measure extent of perceived threat to moral values?), (2) we are assuming both the media and public are singular unified entities. Deviance Amplification: this is known as the second effect of moral panics by STANLEY COHEN. Also known as the spiraling or snowball effect, our societal reaction increases the amount of deviance in society. Our increasingly punitive responses increase deviant crimes. Cohen believes that these members feel stigmatized, and in being outcasts they segregate into like-minded groups, which results in higher rates of possible deviance. MARXIST CRIMINOLOGY Base-superstructure Model of Society: Argument within Marxist thought is that the economic forces structure the character of society. The base of structure refers to a mode of production (means of production + social relations of production). Base of society will shape and determine its superstructure. The superstructure includes social institutions (schools, law, culture, media), and it is important because it legitimates the base. When the base of society changes we can assume the superstructure will also change. Instrumental Marxism: Instrumental Marxists view the criminal law and justice system as an instrument for controlling the poor in society. The state is a tool of the capitalists, whom they imagine as a small group of elite people who are omniscient because they can pull strings at the right moment to serve their interests. Instrumental Marxists have basic assumptions: (1) our society is based on an advanced capitalist economy, (2) in the mode of production, the state is organized to serve the interests of the dominant economic class (rich and powerful can impose morality on rest of population and are immune to criminal sanction), (3) criminal law is an instrument of the state to maintain existing status quo (criminal defined as anyone who’s behaviour threatens the ability of capitalists to maximize profits). The subordinate classes remain oppressed through violence and coercion, which takes the form of law and the criminal justice system. Limitations of Instrumental Marxism: (1) law and justice do not always operate in the interests of the ruling class, (2) members of the ruling class do not conspire together, (3) what benefits one member of ruling class does not necessarily benefit the others, (4) some laws benefit working and lower class, (5) everyone is affected by the law, including the ruling class. Demystification: involves the identification of destructive intent of capitalist-inspired and capitalist- funded criminology. The government and private corporations fund criminological projects, and these researched have tailored goals in such a way that would aid the funding agencies in their attempt to legitimate certain claims. Need to engage in demystification because the goal of criminology ought to be explaining how the rule of law in capitalist society works to preserve ruling class power. Structural Marxism: Law is not the exclusive domain of the rich, instead law is used to maintain the long term interests of the capitalist system and to control any person of any class that poses a threat to its existence. Point of the law is to serve the long-term existence and efficient operation of the capitalist system. It isn’t protecting individuals, it is protecting the system. Thus, structural Marxists disagree with instrumental Marxists that law and capitalism is uni-dimensional (always work in favour of capitalists) Social Junk and Social Dynamite: Law in a capitalist system defines a person as criminal or deviant if that person calls into question any of the following: patterns of distribution and consumption in capitalist society [social junk](uses drugs to escape, unable to contribute to distribution and unlikely to be a consumer), social conditions under which capitalist production takes place [social junk] (unemployed or refuses to be employed), process of socialization for productive and non-productive roles [social junk] (not getting skills needed to be a good employee), ideology that supports the functioning of capitalist society [social dynamite] (if you come up with alternative ideology that explains how to live in society different from a capitalist society – calling into question established relationships under the capitalist system) Peacemaking Criminology: this is known as one of the policy implications of the Marxist approach. In this approach, policies are aimed at conflict resolution. Starting point of peacemaking criminology is that conflict is inevitable and crime is caused by conflict. Argument is that this conflict should not be escalated, especially through revolution and confrontation. When conflict is escalated, you are creating a war aimed at securing more power to destroy opponent. When we engage in war-making, we are destroying trust in the community. FOUCAULT Subjectification: is the process known from FOUCAULT of what makes human subjects possible, and how subjects are made. A human subject is also known as a political subject, because we are subjected to state power and expected to do our civil duty. We are also subjects in the sense that we are individuals who have a sense of ourselves. As human subjects we have a sense of identity and a sense where we have some self-knowledge. Foucault believes that subjectification takes a lot of work, strategies, and techniques administered across a range of institutions to make a human subject. Foucault believes there is no deep truth about human nature; humans are not natural givens, they need to be made. Productive Power: This is under one of the three main approaches to power: power to do something that might otherwise not be possible. Power is productive because it produces things that weren’t there before. Power produces new discourse to talk about sex (speech), pleasure (we view that we are sexually repressed, so when we talk about sex it feels pleasurable because we get a thrill from talking about something that is prohibited), bodies (turns passive body into an active one), identities, and knowledge. Example: power produced more ways to talk about sex. In 19 century, Catholic Church incited sex talks through confession. Psychiatrists began to be interested in sex disorders. Government interested in population and population control, leading to statistical collection of data on sex. Power-Knowledge: the relationship between knowledge and power is summed up in the phrase knowledge is power. Foucault argues that by putting power-knowledge into a single concept, it shows that power cannot be independent of knowledge and vice versa. Power is knowledge because power produces knowledge. Knowledge legitimates and supports power, but we need power to create knowledge in the first place. Thus, any attempt to gain knowledge or produce knowledge is never external to power itself. Example: when researchers go out to collect data, they are exerting power. Sovereign Power: In sovereign power, the knowledge takes the format of juridicial rule, ensuring that either an act is moral or it is not, giving a binary classification of the act. The key aim is to preserve sovereign authority. The key personnel are the state officials. The key logics is that punishment is a key technique internally, and warfare as key technique externally. Punishment was used for domestic governments, whereas warfare was used for government’s foreign relations. The typical technique was a spectacle when many people watching the one or the few (whoever embodies the sovereign power). The key target is the loyal subjects, who are produced through the technique of spectacle, which includes public display of punishment in war like terms, undertaken by state officials, for the purpose of maintaining state authority. Disciplinary Power: The format of knowledge is the norm, which is morally or socially acceptable in society. If you are normal, in a clinical sense, you are healthy – if you deviate from that norm, you are sick. Thus, the norm has moral connotations that have effect on decisions made in criminal justice system. The key aim is constituting individuals, which is done by norms. The key personnel are experts who carry acts and strategies of disciplinary power. The key logics are normalization. Normalization occurs through the typical technique of observation, examination, and surveillance. The key target is disciplined individuals. Panopticon: power operates as a result of a particular distribution of bodies, distribution of visibility and architectural arrangements, irrespective of intentions. The point of the Panopticon and its importance as a technique of hierarchical observation is that it produces a self-controlled body – monitor their own behaviour in order to conform whatever correct standard of behaviour is expected of the inmates in the prison. The inmates make the assumption that the guard is always watching them, and by making this assumption, they internalize the gaze that someone is always watching. One of the limitations of the Panopticon is that it does not explain how to change our environment and react to it so power does not control us. FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY Emancipation Hypothesis: The emancipation hypothesis is under the category of SECOND-WAVE FEMINISM. It was developed in order to understand why during 1959-1970, American crime statistics indicated an increase in women’s involvement in crime. This was increase was argued to be a result of the women’s movement and how it led to changes in women’s social, political, and economic opportunity. As opportunities increased, women had a greater chance to commit crime. Associated with work by ADLER AND SIMON, it was argued that women were committing crime because they were becoming more like men, since they took on more male roles and male tasks because of the nature of changing gender roles resulting from women’s movement. However, this was challenged because it assumed liberated women would want to act like men, and that the other explanation was the economic marginalization of women and this was shown through increase in property crimes due to low income, instead of violent crimes. Double Deviance: Developed by feminist criminologists to describe relationship between criminological theory and their offending and treatment of women in justice system. Female offenders were regarded and sanctioned as doubley deviant. Not only did they violate laws, but they were seen as violating social expectations for appropriate behaviour, based on our construction of gender roles. Thus, they simultaneously transgress both cr
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