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Midterm

CRIM 2650 Midterm: Theories Table For MIDTERM EXAM

7 Pages
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Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 2650
Professor
Anita Lam

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Theory/Theorist Becarria –
Deterrence Theory
Cohen and Felson –
Routine Activities
Theory
Lombroso – Atavism Durkheim
Method: Normative/Utilitaria
n
Normative Scienti!c Structural
determinism
Assumptions about
human nature, society,
crime, and the criminal
Criminals are
hedonistic and in
pursuit of personal
pleasures, partakes
in a balancing act of
cost/bene!t or
pain/pleasure.
Everyone is
considered equal
and able to make
rational decisions
and freely chooses
to violate the law.
Criminal inclination
is normal. Crime is
de!ned as an act
that injures or
harms society.
Routine activity
theory assumes that
crime is
opportunistic. That
crime is a result of
everyday activities
and the consistency
of routines. It
suggests that crime
is committed by
those close to us,
individuals who
know are routine
and are ready to
strike provided
these 3 factors are
present;
motivated
oender, suitable
target, and
absence of
guardian.
-crime is normal
-free will
Criminal atavism
Biological
deterministic theory
Your behaviour and
criminal inclination
is biologically
determined from
birth
Criminally is viewed
as abnormal but
natural in society,
not a result of free
choice
The idea of the born
criminal, less
evolved humans,
evolutionary
throwbacks (social
Darwinism) genetic
abnormality, rejects
moral responsibility,
the criminal act is
out of compulsion
rather than rational
thought, you cant
make the person
responsible because
they were born this
way. Children can
grow out of it
Crime is natural as
it happens in
poverty and
richness. The point
of punishment to
reinforce boundaries
as to what’s
acceptable
behaviour.
Strengthen social
solidarity, make
sure everyone has
the same
behaviours and
morals. You don’t
want social
solidarity to break
down.
Punishment:
1. Sets and
reinforces moral
boundaries and
social norms
2.unites people
against the common
enemy
3.helps society to
adapt and invate
and revise moral
boundaries
4.reduce societal
tension by
projecting rule
breaking on a
speci!c group
Purpose and
Characteristics of
Punishment
Purpose of
punishment is both
speci!c deterrence
(to deter the
individual o7ender)
and general
deterrence (where
the punishment of
an o7ender is made
public and known to
society).Three
pillars of e7ective
deterrence: a)
Severity of
punishment must
match the
seriousness of the
crime, b)
Punishment must be
certain and
consistently applied,
and c) Punishment
must be swift.
Punishment by the
state is legitimized
against individuals
who violate the
social contract when
they commit crime,
society gives up
some rights for the
protection of liberty
Purpose of
punishment is to act
as both a speci!c
and general
deterrent.
Punishment aims to
deter recidivism, as
well as aims to
deter other possible
o7enders by
increasing the cost
and lowering the
bene!ts of a
rational “cost versus
bene!t” analysis. In
some forms of
punishment,
labelling is a
technique of
punishment as
public humiliation
and public shaming
creates awareness
and prevents
recidivism while also
punishing them for
their actions.
-Crime control
Social defense. Try
and defend society,
keep the person
away, not about
rehabilitation or
deterrence.
Punishment is
tailored to the
criminal not the act.
Looking at the
criminal
States role in
punishment:
collective society
and consciousness.
Punishment must be
public, its
expressive and help
re<ect on the
consciousness.

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Description
TheoryTheoristBecarria Cohen and Felson Lombroso AtavismDurkheim Deterrence TheoryRoutine Activities Theory Method:NormativeUtilitariaNormativeScientific Structural ndeterminism Assumptions about Criminals are Routine activity Criminal atavismCrime is natural as human nature, society,hedonistic and in theory assumes thatBiological it happens in crime, and the criminalpursuit of personal crime is deterministic theorypoverty and pleasures, partakes opportunistic. That Your behaviour and richness. The point in a balancing act ofcrime is a result of criminal inclination of punishment to costbenefit or everyday activities is biologically reinforce boundaries painpleasure. and the consistency determined from as to whats Everyone is of routines. It birth acceptable considered equal suggests that crime Criminally is viewed behaviour. and able to make is committed by as abnormal but Strengthen social rational decisions those close to us, natural in society, solidarity, make and freely chooses individuals who not a result of free sure everyone has to violate the law. know are routine choicethe same Criminal inclination and are ready to The idea of the bornbehaviours and is normal. Crime is strike provided criminal, less morals. You dont defined as an act these 3 factors areevolved humans, want social that injures or present; evolutionary solidarity to break harms society. motivated throwbacks (social down. offender, suitable Darwinism) genetic Punishment: target, and abnormality, rejects 1. Sets and absence of moral responsibility,reinforces moral guardian.the criminal act is boundaries and crime is normalout of compulsion social norms free willrather than rational 2.unites people thought, you cant against the common make the person enemy responsible because3.helps society to they were born this adapt and invate way. Children can and revise moral grow out of itboundaries 4.reduce societal
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