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Midterm

CRIM 2652 Midterm: lectures for test 3
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7 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 2652
Professor
annapratt
Study Guide
Midterm

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FEB 2: SENTENCING
-sentencing / funnel = cases fall out + original charges
laid are dropped
-sentencing / net = targeted populations become
overrepresented!
-1996 reforms = prison to be used as a last resort
-prison punishment nexus: when we think of punishment, we think of prisons
-studies: limits + counter-productive effects of prison as punishment
-lack of consistency + few official rules to guide sentencing by judges
-sentencing: (1) must be legal, (2) imposed by judge, (3) can only follow a criminal conviction
-nature + duration is decided at the sentencing stage
-3 questions of the sentencing process!
-1) in + out decision — sanctions community or
custodial based?
-2) type of sanctions — specific
-3) quantum of scale — length of sentence !
-2 phases !
-1) justifying punishment — identifying reasons + goals of it
-2) choosing the sanction — proportionality !
-s 718 — lays out the purpose of sentencing to guide sentencing discretion
-718.1 — fundamental principle
-sentence must be proportionate to the gravity of offence + degree of responsibility of offender
-718.2 — other sentencing principles (aggravating factors, motivation, consistency)
-ex. sentences should be least restrictive (d) + prison should be used as a last resort (e)
-2 rationales of sentencing
4 rationales!
-retribution (+
denunciation)
-deterrence (specific +
general)
-incapacitation
-rehabilitation !
1) retribution + denunciation
-“just desert”: severity of offence + degree of responsibility of offender
-concerns about lack of justice associated w extreme retribution
-focus not only on offence/harm/severity, but also on moral culpability/responsibility
-denunciation aimed @ community as education to be gained from the sentence
-critique
-approach focuses solely on past offence — not offender, risk of re, mitigating, etc
-no punishment for future objectives
-not justifying punishment by the fact that crime wont be committed as in prison
-transfers discretion from judges to parliament
-standardized sentences limit (vs. eliminate) discretion
BACKWARD LOOKING RATIONALES
-retributive justice
-focus on past
-retribution + blameworthiness
-NI4NI - get what you deserve - vs. arm + leg
-proportionality + society denunciation
FORWARD LOOKING RATIONALES
-retorative justice — utilitarian + consequentialist
-focus on future
-denunciation — educating others about undesirability
-rehabilitation
-incapacitation - unable to commit more crime
!1
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2) deterrence!
-future oriented — focus on safe society -specific or general — ex. exemplary sentence !
-critiques
-rational choice — assumes crime = choice + free will maximizing pleasure
-certainty (in effectiveness) vs. penalty — little evidence it works 100% + for who/what?
3) incapacitation !
-focus on community safety
-separation of the offender from community
-ex. taking license away, impounding car, death
penalty, prison, etc!
-critiques
-costly ($ + social)
-$ taken away from crime reducing programs
-more time in prison = less engagement after — no job, community, support, etc
-effects of producing a future criminal
-criminogenic — crimes happen in prison 2
-prediction
-incapacitation based on assessment of their future
-underpins D.Offender legislation where someone can be a DO based on past incidents + future
predictions
4) rehabilitation
-medical model based — diagnosis needed
-restore offender to community as law abiding citizen
-focus on offender vs. offence
-critique
-paradoxical
-rehabilitation must fix
-ex. attending anger management classes assumes criminality is caused by inability to control emotions —
doesn't take other factors into account
-rehab sentence can be longer + more harsh
-incarceration (good behaviour, parole) vs. treatment (not leaving til fixed)
-hard to measure
-can be more punitive — ex. AA meetings for a chronic drinker
-challenges !
-how to match objective with sanction
-formal and informal knowledge
-sentencing disparities + discrimination !
FEB 9: PRISONS + RESTORATIVE ALTERNATIVES
-restorative sentencing process involve victims, offender, community, etc
-s 718 (a) - to provide reparation for harm done to victims or to the community
-s 718(b) - to promote a sense of responsibility in offenders + acknowledgement of the harm done to the victim +
community
Rise of Restorative Initiatives since 1970s
-most law enforcement agencies have a restorative justice unit
-due to public’s disillusionment with the effectiveness of the CJS —
-esp. by victims
!2
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
FEB 2: SENTENCING - sentencing / funnel = cases fall out + original charges - sentencing / net = targeted populations become laid are dropped overrepresented
 - 1996 reforms = prison to be used as a last resort - prison punishment nexus: when we think of punishment, we think of prisons - studies: limits + counter-productive effects of prison as punishment - lack of consistency + few official rules to guide sentencing by judges - sentencing: (1) must be legal, (2) imposed by judge, (3) can only follow a criminal conviction - nature + duration is decided at the sentencing stage - 3 questions of the sentencing process
 - 1) in + out decision — sanctions community or - 2) type of sanctions — specific - custodial based? 3) quantum of scale — length of sentence 
 - 2 phases 
 - 1) justifying punishment — identifying reasons + goals of it - 2) choosing the sanction — proportionality 
 - s 718 — lays out the purpose of sentencing to guide sentencing discretion - 718.1 — fundamental principle - sentence must be proportionate to the gravity of offence + degree of responsibility of offender - 718.2 — other sentencing principles (aggravating factors, motivation, consistency) - ex. sentences should be least restrictive (d) + prison should be used as a last resort (e) - 2 rationales of sentencing BACKWARD LOOKING RATIONALES FORWARD LOOKING RATIONALES - retributive justice - retorative justice — utilitarian + consequentialist - focus on past - focus on future - retribution + blameworthiness - denunciation — educating others about undesirability - NI4NI - get what you deserve - vs. arm + leg - rehabilitation - proportionality + society denunciation - incapacitation - unable to commit more crime 4 rationales
 - retribution (+ - deterrence (specific + - incapacitation denunciation) general) - rehabilitation 
 1) retribution + denunciation - “just desert”: severity of offence + degree of responsibility of offender - concerns about lack of justice associated w extreme retribution - focus not only on offence/harm/severity, but also on moral culpability/responsibility - denunciation aimed @ community as education to be gained from the sentence - critique - approach focuses solely on past offence — not offender, risk of re, mitigating, etc - no punishment for future objectives - not justifying punishment by the fact that crime wont be committed as in prison - transfers discretion from judges to parliament - standardized sentences limit (vs. eliminate) discretion ▯1 2) deterrence
 - future oriented — focus on safe society - specific or general — ex. exemplary sentence 
 - critiques - rational choice — assumes crime = choice + free will maximizing pleasure - certainty (in effectiveness) vs. penalty — little evidence it works 100% + for who/what? 3) incapacitation 
 - focus on community safety - ex. taking license away, impounding car, death - separation of the offender from community penalty, prison, etc
 - critiques - costly ($ + social) - $ taken away from crime reducing programs - more time in prison = less engagement after — no job, community, support, etc - effects of producing a future criminal - criminogenic — crimes happen in prison 2 - prediction - incapacitation based on assessment of their future - underpins D.Offender legislation where someone can be a DO based on past incidents + future predictions 4) rehabilitation - medical model based — diagnosis needed - restore offender to community as law abiding citizen - focus on offender vs. offence - critique - paradoxical - rehabilitation must fix - ex. attending anger management classes assumes criminality is caused by inability to control emotions — doesn't take other factors into account - rehab sentence can be longer + more harsh - incarceration (good behaviour, parole) vs. treatment (not leaving til fixed) - hard to measure - can be more punitive — ex. AA meetings for a chronic drinker - challenges 
 - how to match objective with sanction - sentencing disparities + discrimination 
 - formal and informal knowledge FEB 9: PRISONS + RESTORATIVE ALTERNATIVES - restorative sentencing process involve victims, offender, community, etc - s 718 (a) - to provide reparation for harm done to victims or to the community - s 718(b) - to promote a sense of responsibility in offenders + acknowledgement of the harm done to the victim + community Rise of Restorative Initiatives since 1970s - most law enforcement agencies have a restorative justice unit - due to public’s disillusionment with the effectiveness of the CJS — - esp. by victims ▯2 - interests not considered, exclusion except for being a witness, no input, not enough info + communication - structurally excluded: crime is committed against the state concerns regarding CJS + Offenders - encourages passivity + guilty pleas — some detachment + guilty = lenient sentences - change dynamics at play between victims and offenders in the process - crime and offender objectified — offender has to show remorse - few opportunities for appreciating impact or genuine acceptance of responsibility Restorative aims + ideals 
 - repair harm - victim involved - restore social bonds - community involved - inclusionary + collaborative problem solving - offender accepts responsibility
 - promote harmony - community: who is it? who participates? - hierarchies of power, sexism + discrimination - FN: sentencing circles apply restorative justice when making decisions — family conferencing in DV cases - not a safe place for FN women and children - what about offender’s rights? charter - CAN’s rates of incarceration have risen after building the first penitentiary (1800s) - what prisons don’t do - deterrence? - no deterrence, just decapacitation - if they’re not achieving traditional objectives, then what are they doing? 
 - incapacitation? - rehabilitation?
 - what prisons do - prisons as “total institutions” — erving goffman - prisons are a verity of social institutions — ex. monasteries, prisoner camps, etc - lack of individualism - stripped of personal belongings — not part of society - hierarchy, authority, + control - controlled objects dependent on those with authority for everything - status degradation ceremonies - create dependencies and social distance - sub-culture of resistance + prison - informal knowledge about how to never get around, etc - guards exercise recipe knowledge in dealing with constrains of the institution - has psychological effects — Zimbardo - as total institutions, they can be seen as having their own psychology - environment of prison creates dangerous or problematic populations other than being places that house them - this dynamic then reproduces criminals - lord of the flies effect 
 - inexperienced guards - individuals resist control over them - little instruction - systems based on opposed interests - extraordinary power - double bunking = hostility + harm 
 - limited oversight ▯3 - relatively recent development - emergence linked to capitalism - debtors’ prisons — potentially allowed to leave during day - threw someone in prison because they owed $ >> made them unable to pay off debts - 16th c: Hay + emergence of workhouses - places where people had no home/money/jobs and were sent to engage in hard about - idea that poverty and immorality were linked to criminality - wanted to teach the poor the value of industriousness - 18th c: bloody code established punishment and offences — 200+ capital offences added - reason why these were punishab;e by debt was because there were no intermediate sanctions between imposing death penalty - 18th c: idea of housing convicted criminals came - quakers house of correction + walnut street jail - quakers proposed houses of correction as a more humane response to crime - these would be spiritual places where convicts could conteplate deeds + compensate for the har
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