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CRIM 2652
Anna Pratt

CRIM 2652 [email protected] – Ross South 722 - office hours: Thursdays 10:00-11:00am September 6 , 2012 th September 13 , 2012 Themes of Criminal Justice: - Due Process and Crime Control - The Myth of “the System” - Discretion - Accountability - Inequality - Socio-Historical Context Due Process - Emphasises individual and procedural rights of the accused  presumption of innocence - Goal of the justice system is to create fair justice of everyone, rather than to convict those accused of charges - Charter of Rights and Freedoms Crime Control - Emphasis on controlling crime, protection of the public and rights of victims - Believes that criminal justice does not pay enough attention to victims - Emphasis on incapacitation and deterrence - Criminal justice authorities should have as much power as necessary to prevent/stop the crime The Myth of the System - Criminal justice system is filled with different stages and components - Example: A judge may feel a particular punishment is unworthy of the mandatory minimum, but the law of a mandatory minimum needing to be in place conflicts with the judge’s opinion. A correctional officer may have the conflict of attempting to keep order in the prison, along with rehabilitation of convicts - Competing interests: offenders, victims and communities, justice system Bail  1869: Bail discretionary for all offences 1972: Bail Reform Act codified reasons for keeping an accused in custody - To ensure the accused’s attendance in court; - As protection against criminal offences before trial - In the public interest 1975: Criminal Law Amendment Act introduced reverse onus for some offences - In certain cases, in relation to certain offences, instead of the general rule being release, the general rule is to be detained; unless the accused can give a reasonable explanation for why they should be released s.11(e) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: the right not to be denied bail without reasonable cause 1992: Supreme Court of Canada upheld the reverse onus provisions 2007: Bill C-35 …..FIND THE REST ON POWERPOINT ON MOODLE - Release is the general rule - Unless reverse onus applies, prosecution must show cause to oppose release s.515(10) of the CCC: grounds justifying detention - in order to ensure attendance in court - for the protection of the public - to maintain confidence in the administration of justice EXAMPLE; Husbands Case (shooter at Eaton Centre) - Granted bail of only $4000 for a sexual assault charge, while having charges of possession for guns on him. Presumption of innocence on the idea of Due Process, but at the same time it was a nonsensical move from the Crime Control perspective. Discretion - Discretion is the freedom to choose between different options when confronted with the need to make a decision - Disparity: similar offenders who commit similar crimes receive sentences of differing severity - Reforms implemented, including mandatory sentences and codification of guidelines for sentences, to help prevent disparity - Discretion allows for discrimination into criminal justice decision making Accountability - Closely related to theme of discretion – refers to being accountable for activities of enforcement agents as well - “The state of being accountable; liability to be called on to render an account; the obligation to bear the consequences for failure to perform as expected.” - Mechanisms of Accountability; Charter Rights/Remedies  ss. 7-14 Legal Rights - International Law  standard minimum rules for the treatment of prisoners, basic principles for the treatment of prisoners, body of principles for the protection of all persons under any form of detention or imprisonment - Criminal Prosecutions – used in response of allegations of excessive use of force and abusive power applied by authorities - Civil Law Suits (between two parties) - EXAMPLE: woman known as jane doe won lawsuit against police force for 220 thousand dollars. She had been raped by serial rapist, and the police had known about the danger, but had not told members of the community about dangers – using the women as bait. - Internal and External Review Mechanisms - Commissions of Inquiry (e.g. Arbour Commission 1995) – was set up to investigate a brutal confrontation between two inmates at a prison for women - Police must write down their notes in a detailed fashion, which is ultimately used as evidence because it is the property of the police Inequality - The nature and effects of criminal justice are shaped by broader social relations of power - People who are marginalized feel the inequality of the criminal justice system more so than others - Some may have resources to help the likelihood of attaining release by bail Socio-Historical Context: Change over Time and Place - Definitions of crime, modes of punishment, and severity of punishment change over time and place - Influenced by many historically and culturally specific factors: moral beliefs, political ideologies, etc (more on moodle) th - EXAMPLE: differences between opinions of marijuana in early 20 century to modern day Shifting Definitions of Crime and Criminality - Marijuana:  Expert knowledge’s (e.g. medical, criminological)  Economics  Interest groups and grassroots politics  Legal decisions  Popular culture: public opinion, the media  International influences (the U.S.)  Law and Order politics The cultural and historical specificity of modes of punishment  Techniques of punishment e.g. death penalty  International differences in approaches to and sensibilities about crime and punishment th September 20 , 2012 - Public inquiries are called and paid for by the government, with their job being to investigate issues that are deemed to be of particular seriousness - EXAMPLE: inquiry of doctor Charles smith (leader in forensic child pathology), and as a result of his autopsies, numerous people went to prison. There was a public inquiry into his practice, resulting in sketchy findings in his work  some sentences were taken back - Public’s fear of crime tends to increase to levels that are not reflective of actual stats - EXAMPLE: Death Row Marv  dehumanize/depersonalizes humans and their perception of criminals - The willingness to inflict pain...varies with our social distance from those who suffer, and breaks all restraint when the sufferers can be defined as belonging to a kind different from ourselves - The production of indifferences are facilitated by gender, class, etc - Media coverage tends to focus on sensational violent crimes, brief stories, focus on offence, and few details about the case - Generally, police reported crime rate, which measures overall volume crime, continued its long-term downward trend in 2011 th o Overall crime rate dropped 6% from 2010  8 consecutive decrease in Canada’s crime rate - Crime severity index  measures severity of the crime o Based on a weight that they assign to different crimes (derived from sentences imposed) o Limits  take sentences as an accurate reflection of the seriousness of the crime (sentences more complicated than just a sentence - Almost every type of violent crime has decreased with the exception of increase in homicides, criminal harassment, and sexual offenses against children o Final one includes sexual interference, sexual exploitation, luring child via internet, invitation to sexual touching  the increase dealt with the final two o with respect to homicides, there were 44 more than the previous year (7% increase)  overall, homicide rate has generally been decreasing - level 2 and level 3 assaults (aggravated assault where there is injury or maning of a victim) o level 2 major assault declined as the years have progressed as has robbery o majority of offenses are non-violent, and propery offenses make up the most common reported crimes o police reported drug crime has increased  mostly possession offenses - in 2011, more youth than ever were diverted from the criminal justice system and that more youth received diversion than were formally charged Misperceptions: - incarceration - corrections - parole - success rates of parolees - costs of incarceration compared with community based supervision Sentencing - public has been asked about sentencing, and most people believe sentences are too lenient, and underestimate the severity of the sentencing that makes place o perception that people who are convicted of robbery are less likely to go to prison, when in reality 90% of them go to prison o most also believe that increasing the severity of penalties will have an appreciable impact on crime rates  widely understood that it is not severity that deters, but the likelihood of being of caught  ability of sentencing to have an effect on crime rates is non-existent largely because the number of offenders who are sentenced are very small  CASE ATTRITION Mandatory Minimums - more mandatory minimums are believed to be needed for gun crimes - no effect on crime rates through deterrence - no effect on sentencing disparity  displaces the disparity from judges to prosecution - increase prison populations  prison overcrowding, difficulties keeping order - increase costs (prisons and trials) - referred to mandatory minimums as a political response, because it is not grounded in any persuasive research Conditional Sentences - s. 742: a convicted person who would otherwise be sentenced to incarceration for a period of less than two years can be sentenced to a conditional term of imprisonment to be served in the community instead of in custody - big focus is on eliminating conditional sentences for gun crimes o a sentence of imprisonment that is done in the community  access to these conditional sentences is limited in Bill C-10 - costly of eliminating conditional sentences (estimated $100 million per year) because of trial costs, prison costs - increased prison populations (overcrowding, double-bunking, keeping order) - conditional sentences tend to be justified with the argument that we can’t have violent offenders getting conditional sentences, when in fact those who get the conditional sentences are not those people o Most gun crimes have mandatory minimums, becoming ineligible for conditional sentences o The people who get the conditional sentences are those who commit property crimes most of the time - Very few people who are under a conditional sentence re-offend o When they do reoffend, it’s not for a violent offence, it’s for breaching the conditions of the conditional sentence Criminal Justice as Drama - Evidence in the nature of news coverage, size of criminology programs, and evidence in the near saturation of popular culture with crime dramas - Over the years, there has been a shift in the nature of crime dramas from defense lawyers being the main characters and good guys, to police are the main characters and heroes (due process type of spirit to crime control) - Criminal trials are often compared to morality plays o Stalk characters who each play their part in acting out a play that ultimately reveals a lesson of right or wrong  If trials are morality plays, we have to think of what goes on behind the scenes  In order to think about the backstage mechanics, we need to begin with the “moral of the story” Symbol of Justice - Scales imply balance - Blindfolded  not affected by characteristics of who comes before her - Sword  there is force, a sanction that may be applied, and can represent protection - Official version of law would believe that the blindfold shows that she will treat everyone equally - In terms of her being a maiden, it is the idea of purity, uncorruptedness, untainted by lowly influences - Together, all of these elements tell a powerful story about law: impartial, neutral, objective, system of resolving conflict Official Version of Law - “the official version of law – what the legal world would have us believe about itself – is that it is an impartial, neutral and objective system for resolving social conflict…divorced from politics, morals, and systems of belief, law’s task is to discern the facts…and find the truth of any given matter placed before it (Naffine, 1990) - Maintained in Canada by an adversarial system (two parties who are in a dispute, or a contest version of events) o Law attempts to find the truth between the two sides o Judge is the higher power o Judiciary must be perceived to be a neutral power (removed from any investment or interest in the case) - Separation of powers (legislature and judiciary) o This is essential so that judiciary can appear as autonomous and free of political interference to insure the idea of the neutral arbiter being preserved o Legislators can make the laws, but the public or electorate will choose who will enforce them  To separate the powers of the judiciary and the legislature  Appointing judges makes sure they remain above the dynamics of politics and fray of local politics o Separation of powers is a fundamental tenant of the justice system - Rule of law o Everyone is subject to the law regardless of social status, position, political position, occupation, etc  Key to the story that law tells about itself: In order to be a neutral arbiter, everyone must be equal to the law o Everyone is equal before the law  blind justice  Widely recognized to be the foundation of all of her claims towards equality  Denies the reality that we are not all equal - Legal Method o Idea that cases must be decided through legal reasoning on the facts, not through values or beliefs, almost as its own science o There is a value free, neutral, objective set of rules that can be assessed and tested in order to arrive at the truth or the verdict o Stare Decisis: to stand by the law, stand by legal matters  law of precedent  like cases must be treated alike o lower courts must adopt precedents set by higher courts  decisions flow downwards - Abstract, Universal Subject o Law presents itself as fair, disinterested and therefor just. But in order to achieve this, legal system must believe that we are all equal o The law abstracts us, dismembers us from our raw unequal circumstances  Takes us out of our real world conditions, separates us from race gender class and claims we are all the same September 27 , 2012 TODAYS LECTURE: 1. Historical origins of ‘justice’ 2. Majesty, Justice and Mercy - We live in the capitalist society, so we have law that reflects the values of capitalism - History of our justice system is intimately connected to history of capitalism - In 1600’s a class of wealth producers (bourgeoisie) derived their wealth from money, and not from land or inheritance  they wanted and needed new set of laws - Wanted a set of laws that were predictable, consistent, transparent, known, rational - Wanted protection from aristocratic greed and tyranny of others - In France that was a removal of the king, to be replaced by republican systems of government - Revolutions provide context for rule of law  nobody is above or outside the law - Rule of Law is the central component of our commonplace system th th - The bloody Code: criminal code developed in late 17 to early 19 century  massive increase in number of capital offenses - Enormous number of people were displaced from their economic goals - Enclosure Laws: land was fenced off or enclosed and deemed private, including what had previously been the commons  peasants no longer allowed on area - How did a system that was so obviously unequal come to be understood as fair, impartial, and just? - While number of capital offenses increased, the number of actual hangings did not - The law is about much more than its content, it speaks ideologically and symbolically Doug Hay (1975) Majesty  spectacle, awe, theatre, morality - Judges would ride out 4 times a year to hear out indictable cases - Arrival of justices was a major event (parade-like) - Handing down of sentences was a dramatic event  would always comment on how sentence would restore order and morality Justice - It was a part of the judges job to ensure trials were conducted fairly - Appearance of justice was maintained in two ways: 1. by observed formalism (proved that all the rules must consistently and equally applied) and procedural rules (legitimate the law) 2. Second way was of the widely publicized trials of the wealthy (demonstrate that rule of law applies to everyone - Contributes heavily to justice system is indeed justice, regardless of social standing Mercy - Discretionary power that judges had to pardon and grant clemency to convicted prisoners - Upheld and strengthened relationships between class  made upper-class seem benevolent with those who needed benevolence Division of Powers Federal Government - Only federal government has jurisdiction to make criminal law - Can also pass statutes that create federal offenses (e.g. income tax act, competition act) - Provinces responsible for administering criminal justice Provincial & Territorial Governments - Administer criminal justice, including police, courts and provincial prisons - Enact and enforce provincial statues (quasi-criminal not quite real between what is a true crime or not) EG. Ontario highway act Municipalities - May also pass quasi-criminal by-laws (e.g. pet licensing, snow removal) Civil vs. Criminal Law CIVIL LAW ----------------- CRIMINAL LAW Objectives: compensation ----------------------------------- punishment Focus: Consequence ------------------------------------ criminal act Rules of Evidence: Must provide information ------------------- no self-incrimination Casality/Standard of proof: balance of probabilities ------------------ beyond reasonable doubt Relevance of Law: Retroactivity ------------------------------------- no retroactivity - We see an erosion of public from criminal justice system, because offenses are taken up as public matters and handled by others to take care of - For good or for ill, the criminal justice system is in power to seek punishment for those actions deemed criminal - In terms of retroactivity, a crime can be revisited in civil law if a law wasn’t at the moment enacted, but was created after E.G. Aboriginals act Crime Funnel Model - The idea of cases being lost as they traverse through the system - Few people declare satisfaction with the way justice system is run - Each stage is like a filter 1. Visibility/reporting – e.g. tax evasion, assault not being reported (number of charges will exceed number of people) 2. Police Discretion – determine what comes into the system, and on what terms 3. Bail – cases can be lost from system, warning can be sent instead of bail 4. Prosecutorial Discretion – diverting some cases, and dropping others completely 5. Trial – those that are still in this stage are considered guilty 6. Sentencing – Consensus/Funnel Crime Control Model: - Presumption of guilt - Assembly line: speed + efficiency + uniformity = Justice - Police & Prosecutors Due Process Model: - Presumption of innocence - Quality Control: reliability OVER efficiency; assumes human error - Courts, defence, and civil rights Conflict Critiques of Funnel - Point out that funnel metaphor is flawed in couple ways: does not tell us where crime comes from (why are some things labelled as criminal, while others are not) - Funnel assumes there is a fixed universe of crime  idea is to ensure that offenders are properly dealt with - Crime can only be understood as those actions that are so labelled and acted on - Conflict theorists say that if the funnel worked, those screened out would be minor offenders, while those who committed more serious offenders would stay in the system. Instead, most inhabitants in prison are those guilty of minor offenses - Some people have advantages in escaping the funnel E.G. resources Crime Net - Instead the metaphor of the net  fishing for certain fish - Function of criminal justice system is to control types of people rather than specific behaviours - “just as the fisherman does not cast his net randomly, neither do the police” - People targeted by the system are those who end up in the system - Police and criminal justice system actively define what crime is  forming an ideological circle - Socio-historical phenomenon influenced by a variety of factors OCTOBER 4 , 2012 The politics of reform: prostitution in Canada 1. Defining prostitution 2. The historical development of Canada’s prostitution laws 3. Current laws governing prostitution in Canada 4. The profile of women who are involved in street prostitutiton 5. The danger of street prostitituon 6. The Bedford case: public harms vs. harms to women 1. Defining Prostitution Exchange of sexual services for money, but…  Acceptance of other goods and benefits in lieu of cash?  Marrying for financial security? Most people conceive of prostitution as the exchange of sexual services for money. 50% Canadians believe that the exchange of sex for other benefits also constitutes prostitutes. Prostitution consider a: ‘Victimless’ Crime  Consensual transaction: exchange between willing partners of goods and services in between adults  Public order crime not interpersonal crime  Justification of criminalization: PUBLIC harms (not private, interpersonal harms) o Public Morals  Prostitution is a sin, it’s morally wrong o Public Health  Protecting the public from STD’s o Public Order  Most influential justification for criminalization  Idea that the criminal law has to be used to supress the destructions that are caused by street prostitution: traffic, effects on property values, attraction of other related crimes Prostitution is still consider as a women’s crime. Women are disproportionately charged and tend to receive harsher sentences. If you include male prostitutes and pimps, the vast majority involved in prostitution are men. 2. Historical development  Canadian law modeled on English precedents on the keeping of bawdy houses  18 century it was a huge threat to public moral English System: criminalization of prostitution based on public harms (Canada uses this system)  Concerned for public harms: traffic, property values, etc. Continental System: regulation not criminal prohibition (e.g. Holland and Denmark) based largely on public health  Concerned for public health Legislative history:  Lower Canada Act: This provision that mentions prostitution stated that the police can arrest “all common prostitutes… (quote continues on ppt)”  Vagrancy provisions governed till 1972 and were seen as a status offence. A status offence is that you’re basically arrested not for what you’ve done but for who you are; for your identity.  In 1972 there was the introduction and passage of the soliciting law (more info on ppt) Soliciting law had three reasons for passing:  In recognition of injustice of status offences  Increasing liberal view that you should separate criminal law from morality  In recognition of the gender biased of the pre-existent provisions Enforcement of the law was not clear because they didn’t have evidence as to what was public. Is a car public? What does it even mean to solicit? The police still focused on charging women rather than men even after gender neutrality was clarified. The hutt decision took on this question as to what is soliciting. It wasn’t enough for police to just show that there was negotiation for cash. Soliciting had to be ‘pressing and persistent’. They really had to show that the accused said no. The politics of reform These groups were influential when it came to speaking about the Hutt decision:  Interest groups (Bolded played a big role) o Businesses o Hotels o Middle Class professional property owners o Residential groups o Women’s groups o Police Major Issues/Concerns 1. Business/Property Owners/ Residential Groups: Public Nuisance Concerns 2. Women’s Groups: prostitution as oppression, protection of children young women a. Tended to agree with the first group in relation to the need to criminalize prostitution. They thought prostitution was a patriarchal expression. 3. Police: crime control and enforcement 1985 Bill c-49 replaced the soliciting law.  Made an offence to solicit any person for prostitution  Since 1985, the buying and selling of prostitution is not illegal The bawdy house provision: bawdy houses were struck down in 2012 but the decision was suspended for 1 year so the courts can decide if it’s a constitution issue. This provision includes : a place kept or used by at least one person for the purpose of prostitituon and that include the person’s home. The maximum penalty is an offence on summary conviction Three main Classes of Offences: 1. Bawdy house offences (keeping, being in, owning, transporting to)  ‘any defined space is capable of being a common bawdy house, even a parking lot’  ‘that the premises are a common bawdy house may be proved by evidence of the general reputation of the house in the community’ 2. Living on the avails of prostitution a. Also prohibits women from hiring body guards, drivers, etc. (?) 3. Communicating or attempting to communicate in a public place for the purpose of prostitution Two main objective of Bill C-49: 1. Reduce the numbers of people involved in street prostitution a. Ex. Not stopping a car or attempting to stop anyone for prostitution 2. Control associated levels of nuisance As examined by the readings: They said that it’s not affecting the two objectives of Bill c-49 The impact of Bill C-49  No reduction in number or person involved in prostitution related activities  No reduction of the perceived public nuisance  Displacement not suppression  Increased enforcement activity o Increased Charging o Focus on the streets o Still a female crime: sentencing and John Schools Profile of women in street prostitution:  Young  Single  Female  Poorly educated  Poor  Addictions (alcohol most common)  Many were physically and sexually abused as children  Get involved young (around 15 yrs)  Disproportionately from racialized backgrounds, including large numbers of aboriginal women in Saskatchewan and Manitoba  Many with dependent children Dangers of street prostitution 1. Homicide a. 63 known sex workers were murdered (representing 5% of all reported female homicides) b. 60 were women c. 50 killed by customers (8 by pimps or in a drug related incident, the rest by husbands, common-law spouses and boyfriends) d. At end of 1996m over half of cases unsolved (compared with 20% of non sex trade worker homicides which remained unsolved) 2. Assault a. Street prostitutes more likely to experience violence than those working off the street All of this should be evidence to move prostitutions out of the streets. But the Bawdy houses have criminalized the act of bringing the act inside. In conclusion, the tough penalties causes prostitution to be put in a more vulnerable position. Ex: alley ways Bedford case: Struck down bawdy house, living on the avails and communicating provisions as unconstitutional 1. Bawdy House Provisions: “can place prostitutes in danger by preventing them from working in-call in a regular indoor location and gaining the safety benefits of proximity to others, security staff, closed- circuit television and other monitoring.” 2. Living on the Avails provision “can make prostitues more susceptible to violence by preventing them from legally hiring bodyguards or drivers while working. Without these supports, prostitutes may proceed to unknown locations and be left alone… 3. … On ppt The judge concluded. Quote on ppt Majority Decision 1. Upheld the striking down of the bawdy house provisions. 2. Agreed that living on avails provision is over broad, but no need to strike down: need to ‘read in’ limits so that the provision applies only to those who live on the avails of prostitution in circumstances of exploitation 3. Disagreed with striking down of communicating provision. Public harms versus harm to those involved in prostitution Minority decision in ppt Short essay requires to integrate lectures and readings. Make reference to course materials. Do not assume that the reader has any background information so lay everything out. Short answer: Not only identify a point but explain the point. Make different points! OCTOBER 11 , 2012 Today’s Class: 1. Historical Overview of Policing 2. Emergence of Peel Model of Public Police 3. Traditional/Professional Crime Fighting Model 4. Challenges to Crime Fighting Model 5. Roles and Powers of Police Today 6. Police Powers and Discretion Policing: the act of maintaining and reproducing social order The Police: institutions or individuals given the right by the state to use coercive force In order to maintain and reproduce social order Historical Overview i) Pre-Modern Policing o Pre-industrial England: agricultural kinship-based communities o Policing as a part-time, volunteer and communal responsibility  People would be their own police  A community responsibility  Hue and Cry (13 century)  “raises an alarm”  Tithing’s  groups of 10 family members or land owners responsible for policing their communities  Informants  presentments to the cheriff (basically, a snitch)  ‘Watch and ward’  institutionalization of the hue and cry method  People would take turns monitoring the nights for wrongdoers  Thief-takers  catching felons for a price, but they ended up becoming thieves themselves o Industrial revolution (18 and early 19 century): urbanization, kinship ties breaking down, corruption, ineffective  Bow Street Runners  wore bright red waist-coats. Were created in mid 1700s, modelled on the idea of the thief-takers, but they had modern features: wore uniforms, were paid by government, represented an early form of a public police force. Had more generally narrowed tasks, instead of monitoring the streets for crime o British Concerns about a police force:  Bourgeois fear of centralized power, threat to civil liberties (fear from above)  Don’t want a standing army that has its power in the hands of the aristocracy  Only wanted to free themselves from the old ties of the land in order to be free to engage in commerce and transferring wealth  Wanted a rational and impartial legal status  Working class fear of control of dissent, political repression  See public police force as a potential form of class control ii) Emergence of the Peel Model of Modern Policing: the “new” police - Metropolitan Police Act of 1829 o Created a publicly funded and state controlled paramilitary police force  Created by Sir Robert Peel – father of modern policing  Body of men, hierarchically organized  Allegiance to senior officers  Influenced by central government  Operate according to legal rules and procedures  Uniformed - Peel’s vision rested on two assumptions: o (1) It was possible to prevent crime o (2) the most effective way to prevent crime was through preventative patrols o Crime would be prevented because of their presence – idea of deterrence Peel’s Principles of Law Enforcement - Police were explicitly identified with the legal system - It was the law rather than economic/political elites that became the external legitimation for the public police - Real effort to present police as a neutral force that was there to prevent crime and create order for everybody - Impartial service to the law (not class interests) - Expected to be models of good conduct – explicitly told to be polite and treat everyone fairly o Did not want to perceive the idea that there is an affiliation with a specific group - “The police are the public and the public are the police” – Principle #7 o While they are specialist in provision of security, they also are meant to be representative of everybody - The new public police force set up new lines of accountability through the state and through law th III) The Traditional/Professional Model of Policing (20 Century) - Shift from crime prevention to crime fighting model: random patrol, rapid response and reactive investigation o Emerged in 1920s – one of the influences was increasing corruption in police forces o Police were getting too close to the communities - Began to adopt a more detached form of policing o Seen as preventing officers from getting into too much trouble with close connections from community - Emergence of patrol cars, two-way radios o New technology and perceived as huge advancements o Increased the range of ground that could be covered, and further advance ability of supervisors to keep tabs on patrolling officers and stuck to the agenda o Police patrolling around different neighbourhoods would create feeling that for law-abiding citizens the police were there and would deter law-breakers o Believed authority would go up because of big, fancy cars - Police emerged as the “gatekeepers” of the Criminal Justice System o Experts who had a greater understanding of keeping safety in the communities  911 System – reactive role of the police emerged o Expectation that community would step out of the way when police arrived, would support them, and testify in court - Police success is shown through arrests, proving that crime is being controlled - Sub-culture: “thin blue line” o Police tend to see themselves as a thin blue line that stands between order on one side and criminality on the other side o Maintain a fierce independence – autonomy is necessary and consistent with neutrality that Peel had in mind o Idea that civilians just don’t get the kind of work that police deal with, so they should not be all
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