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CRIM 3652 Midterm: Ethnography study sheet for test #1

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CRIM 3652
Richard Myles

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Ethnographies of Crime and Policing Test #1 Study Sheet Lecture #1 Scrutinizing the crimes of the powerful & Why Research Policing?  The crimes of the powerful are far more costly, examples: corporate crimes cause more victims than the regular street crime. Rather than just one victim there are multiple victims left in debt, jobless. These committed by states and corporations have greater economic, physical and social costs than conventional criminals. White-collar crime is more serious than street gang crimes.  How do the powerful get away with these crimes? They co-produce law to benefit them, while demonizing marginalized ‘others’. The ones in power can afford good lawyers, connections, and techniques of neutralizing the crime.  In the best interest of those in power it is best that their actions and methods are made invisible to avoid public being informed and aware.  Secrecy is an obvious manifestation of power maintenance. Corporate and state crime is well under-documented and reported in mainstream criminology and criminal justice publishing. Hiding the truth about the severity of white-collar crime why? Power maintenance & political corruption  Hegemony-leadership or dominance of one group over all others  White-collar crime is almost impossible to detect at times due to conflicting interests. Bringing attention to corporate crime means bringing attention to the state. Policing  Policing is a social process while “police” refers to a particular institution  Carried out by various social intuitions, not just the police.  Policing is evaluated differently by people with varying social interests, positions and values.  Policing is a universal requirement of any social order  Policing is an aspect of social control: policing forms punishment reproduces conditions for social order such as childhood socialization or religion.  Policing defines in society “what is deviant, problematic, worrying, threatening”.  This definition is apparent in theories such as broken windows type policing, a focus on order maintenance, punitive policing, and situational crime prevention.  Neoliberalism from his slides? ***** Evolution of research on Police  Police research only began in the 19060s  Academic research: through disciplines such as sociology, criminology, history etc.  Four stages: consensus, controversy, conflict, and contradiction *Read more into this 1. The Celebratory Stage (early 1960s) 2. The Controversy Stage (late 1960s-1970s) 3. The Conflict Stage (1980s) 4. The Neoliberal/Crime Control/Order Maintenance Stage (1990s-Present)  Insider insider (police officers conducting the research on police) outsiders insiders (officers who have left the force) inside outsiders (work close to but not in the actual system) outsider outsider (academics doing police research) Lecture #2 Ethnographic Approaches and Methods What is Ethnography? “Ethnography is the study of groups of people in their natural setting, typically involving the researcher being present for extended periods of time in order to collect data systematically about their daily activities and the meaning attached to them” Origins: Rooted in ancient anthropology The “savage slot”: The savage slot helped to constitute the west as we know it. The West has neither a specific canon nor borders that can be geographically demarcated. The West, then, is essentially an internalized set of stories and politics, narratives predicated upon the Othering of non-Westerners--savages. The Chicago School: Professor Robert Park encouraged his students to study deviant groups such as gangs in their natural settings. Howard Becker (also Chicago School): His study of marijuana users, his work explored the social processing involved in becoming deviant by observing the process of a particular behavior being labeled (Labeling theory) as deviant and the impact this label has on the individual. Feminist and ethnography: feminists tend
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