behaviour therapy Array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioural and cognitive
science as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviours
rather than inferred conflict as legitimate targets for change. (P. 25)
behavioural model Explanation of human behaviour, including dysfunction, based on principles of
learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology. (P. 23)
behaviourism Explanation of human behaviour, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning
and adaptation derived from experimental psychology. (P. 17)
catharsis Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension; important in psychoanalytic therapy (P. 18)
classical conditioning Fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that
automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus).
After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the
desired response. (P. 24)
clinical description Details of the combination of behaviours, thoughts, & feelings of an individual. (P.8)
defence mechanisms Common patterns of behaviour, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in
moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be
unconscious processes originating in the ego. (P. 20)
dream analysis Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id
impulses and intrapsychic conflicts. (P. 22)
etiology Cause or source of a disorder. (P. 8)
extinction Learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or
pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the
procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing. (P. 24)
free association Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed
into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring. (P. 22)
intrapsychic conflict In psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego, and superego. (P. 19)
introspection Early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to
report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked. (P. 24)
mental hygiene movement Mid-nineteenth century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by
informing the public of their mistreatment. (P. 16)
moral therapy Nineteenth-century psychosocial approach to treatment that involved treating patients as
normally as possible in normal environments. (P. 15)
neuroses Obsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorders thought to result from unconscious
conflicts and the anxiety they cause. Singular is neurosis. (P. 21)
object relations Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children
incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them. (P. 21)
person-centred therapy Therapy method in which the client, rather than the counsellor, primarily directs
the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility. (P. 23) psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploration of, and insight
into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud. (P. 17)
psychoanalyst Therapist who practises psychoanalysis after earning either an M.D. or Ph.D. degree
and then receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training. (P. 17)
psychoanalytic model Complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that
seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal
behaviour, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces. (P. 19)
psychodynamic psychotherapy Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes
unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems. (P. 22)
psychological disorder Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning
that is not a typical or culturally expected response. (P. 3)
psychopathology Scientific study of psychological disorders. (P. 6)
scientist-practitioner model Expectation that mental health professionals will apply scientific methods
to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must
evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate their own research to discover new
knowledge of disorders and their treatment. (P. 7)
self-actualizing Process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their
highest potential against difficult life experiences. (P. 23)
shaping In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more
similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviours may be learned. (P. 26)
systematic desensitization Behavioural therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving
gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, relaxation. (P. 25)
transference Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they
do to important authority figures, particularly their parents. (P. 22)
unconditional positive regard Acceptance by the counsellor of the client’s feelings and actions without
judgment or condemnation. (P. 23)
What Is a Psychological Disorder?
A psychological disorder is (1) a psychological dysfunction or dyscontrol within an individual that
is (2) associated with distress or impairment in functioning and (3) a response that is not typical
or culturally expected. No description has been identified that defines essence of abnormality.
The Science of Psychopathology
Using scientific methods, mental health professionals can function as scientist-practitioners.
They not only keep up with the latest findings but also use scientific data to evaluate their own
work, and they often conduct research within their clinics or hospitals.
Research about psychological disorders categories: description, causation, treatment, outcomes. The Supernatural, Biological, and Psychological Traditions
Historically, three approaches to abnormal behaviour have been used. In the supernatural
tradition, abnormal behaviour is attributed to agents outside our bodies or social environment,
such as demons or spirits, or the influence of moon and stars; though still alive, this tradition has
been largely replaced by biological and psychological perspectives. In the biological tradition,
disorders are attributed to disease or biochemical imbalances; in the psychological tradition,
abnormal behaviour is attributed to faulty psychological development and social context.
Supernatural treatments include exorcism to rid the body of the supernatural spirits. Biological
treatments typically emphasize physical care and the search for medical cures, especially drugs.
Psychological use psychosocial treatments, moral therapy and including modern psychotherapy.
Freud, the founder of psychoanalytic therapy, offered an elaborate conception of the
unconscious mind. In therapy, Freud focused on tapping into the mysteries of the unconscious
through such techniques as catharsis, free association, and dream analysis. Though Freud's
followers veered from his path in many ways, Freud's influence can still be felt today.
One outgrowth of Freudian therapy is humanistic psychology, which focuses more on human
potential and self-actualizing than on psychological disorders. Therapy that has evolved from
this approach is known as person-centred therapy; the therapist shows almost unconditional
positive regard for the client's feelings and thoughts.
The behavioural model moved psychology into the realm of science, with emphasis on findings
from the laboratories of psychology as applied to human behaviour. Therapeutic techniques
derived from this model include systematic desensitization, reinforcement, and shaping.
The Present: The Scientific Method and the Integrative Approach
We now realize that no contribution to psychological disorders ever occurs in isolation.
VIEW PDF OF TIMELINE IN END OF CHAPTER REVIEW affect Conscious, subjective aspect of emotion that accompanies an action at a time. (P. 61)
agonist Chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its
effects. (P. 48)
antagonist Chemical substance that decreases or blocks effects of a neurotransmitter. (P. 48)
diathesis–stress model Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific
stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder. (P. 38)
dopamine Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid
in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviours (thus balancing serotonin). A relative excess of dopamine
is implicated in schizophrenia (though contradictory evidence suggests the connection is not simple) and
its deficit is involved in Parkinson’s disease. (P. 51)
epigenetics The study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that
alter the phenotypic expression of genes. (P. 41)
equifinality Developmental psychopathology principle that a behaviour or disorder may have several
different causes. (P. 67)
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus
inhibits a range of behaviours and emotions, especially generalized anxiety. (P. 49)
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) system Inhibitory neurotransmitter system that is thought to be
associated with excessive anxiety. (P. 49)
glutamate Amino acid neurotransmitter that excites different neurons, leading to action. (P. 49)
implicit cognition Unconscious cognitive processes that are difficult to measure because people cannot
verbalize them, as they are not even aware of them. (P. 58)
implicit memory Condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events even though he or
she acts in response to them. (P. 58)
inverse agonist Chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular
neurotransmitter. (P. 48)
learned helplessness A person begins to believe that they have no control their life. (P. 56)
neurons Individual nerve cells that are responsible for transmitting information. (P. 43)
neuroscience Study of nervous system and its role in behaviour, thoughts, emotions. (P. 42)
neurotransmitters Chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from
one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders.
norepinephrine (also noradrenaline) Neurotransmitter that is active in the central and peripheral
nervous systems controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions. Because
of its role in the body’s alarm reaction, it may also contribute in general and indirectly to panic attacks and
other disorders. (P. 50)
prepared learning Certain associations can be learned more readily than others because this ability has
been adaptive for evolution. (P.57) reciprocal gene–environment model Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder
may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder. (P. 39)
reuptake Action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after
being released into a synaptic cleft. (P. 48)
serotonin A neurotransmitter involved in processing information and coordination of movement as well as
inhibition and restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviours, all of
which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in
schizophrenia. (P. 49)
synaptic cleft Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one
neuron to the next. (P. 43)
VISUALS FROM CHAPTER?
One-Dimensional or Multidimensional Models
To identify the causes of various psychological disorders, we must consider the interaction of all
relevant dimensions: genetic contributions, the role of the nervous system, behavioural and
cognitive processes, emotional influences, social and interpersonal influences, and
developmental factors. Thus, we have arrived at a multidimensional integrative approach.
Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology
The genetic influence on much of our development and most of our behaviour, personality, and
even IQ is polygenic—that is, influenced by many genes, each contributing only a tiny effect.
This is assumed to be the case in abnormal behaviour as well, although individual genes have yet
to be identified that relate to the major psychological disorders.
In studying causal relationships in psychopathology, researchers look at the interactions of
genetic and environmental effects. In the diathesis–stress model, individuals are assumed to
inherit certain vulnerabilities that make them susceptible to a disorder when the right kind of
stressor comes along. In the reciprocal gene–environment model, the individual's genetic
vulnerability toward a certain disorder may make it more likely that he or she will experience
the stressor that, in turn, triggers the genetic vulnerability and thus the disorder. In epigenetics,
the immediate effects of the environment (such as early stressful experiences) influence cells
that turn certain genes on or off. This effect may be passed down through several generations.
Neuroscience and Its Contributions to Psychopathology
Within the nervous system, levels of neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine activity interact to
modulate and regulate emotions and behaviour and contribute to psychological disorders.
Critical to our understanding of psychopathology are the neurotransmitter currents called brain
circuits. Of the neurotransmitters that may play a key role, we investigated five: serotonin,
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Behavioural and Cognitive Science The relatively new field of cognitive science provides a valuable perspective on how behavioural
and cognitive influences affect the learning and adaptation each of us experience throughout
life. Clearly, such influences not only contribute to psychological disorders but also may directly
modify brain functioning, brain structure, and even genetic expression. We examined some of
the research in this field by looking at learned helplessness, modelling, prepared learning,
implicit memory, and cognitive-behavioural therapy.
Emotions have a direct and dramatic impact on our functioning and play a central role in many
disorders. Mood, a persistent period of emotionality, is often evident in psychological disorders.
Cultural, Social, and Interpersonal Factors
Social and interpersonal influences profoundly affect both psychological disorders and biology.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a form of treatment that focuses on the resolution of social