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EECS 1520 Midterm: TEST 2 NOTES

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Course Code
EECS 1520
John Hofbauer
Study Guide

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TEST 2 NOTES, Febuary 9th (everything tested onwards will be on the test)
Vector Graphics
- An image that is defined using mathematical equations representing lines, curves, and
- Can be enlarged without a loss of detail, or change in file size
- Images created using drawing applications or text editors
- SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
o Popular vector graphics format
o Files are text-based and can be compressed accordingly
Raster Graphics
- An image that is comprised of a matrix of pixels
- Images created/edited using painting applications
- Very good for photographs, but suffers from pixilation
o When enlarged, the rectangular shape of pixels becomes apparent
Indexed Colour
- Popular technique for compressing images
- Instead of representing all colours, save only those used
- Like compressing text with keyword encoding, but with colour instead
Example Image Formats
- GIF (Graphics Interchange Format, pronounces “Jiff”)
o Lossless, indexed colours (maximum of 256), run-length encoding
o Compression ratios of 10%
o Allows transparency and animation
- PNG (portable network graphics)
o Lossless compression using indexed colours, run-length encoding
o Compression ratios of 7%
o Allows transparency
- PNG and GIF best used for line drawings, logos, or diagrams
- JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
o Ideal format for photos
- Comprised of frames of still images (combined with audio)
- When viewed in rapid succession, the images give the appearance of motion (typical
frames per second or even 60 fps)
- Typical frame sizes (resolutions):
o 4096x2160 pixels, 4K
o 1920x1080, Full HD
o 1280x720, HD
o 853x480, SD
- Uncompressed video occupies vast storage space (more than 100 MB per second for Full
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