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Final

EECS 1520 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cambodian Riel, Cable Modem, User Datagram Protocol


Department
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Course Code
EECS 1520
Professor
Parke Godfrey
Study Guide
Final

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CSE Exam Study Notes
Topic A
-Hardware: physical elements of a computer
-Software: programs that provide instructions for a computer to execute
-Data: information in a form computer’s can use
-Operating system: manages a computer’s resources
-Applications: using computer to solve specific real-world problems
-Communication: computers sharing info and resources
-Abstraction: way to think about something
-Miller’s Law: you cam only manage 7 pieces of info in short-term memory at a
time
-Augusta Lovelace: 1st programmer; invented the concept of the loop
-1st generation (1950s):
oVacuum tubes; big and not reliable
oMagnetic drum for memory
oMagnetic tape drive; sequential storage device
oMachine language (binary)
oAssembly languages (artificial languages then translated to machine
language)
oSystem programmers wrote tools to make programming easier for others
-2nd generation (-1965):
oTransistor; fast, small, cheap
oMagnetic cores; can store 1 bit of info
oMagnetic disks; can access data directly
oHigh-level language (English-like statements)
oApplications programmers used tools written by system programmers to
write programs
-3rd generation (-1971):
oIntegrated circuits; replaced circuit boards
oTransistors; used for memory construction
oTerminal; input/output device
oSystems software (utility programs, translators, and OS)
-4th generation (to now):
oLarge-scale integration (microchips)
oPCs
oStructured programming (Pascal, C, C++)
oNew application software (spreadsheets, word processors…)
oStructured programming was a local, disciplined approach to
programming
-5th generation:
oMicrosoft
oObject design

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oWWW
-Parallel computing: interconnected central processing
-Networking: small computers connected and sharing resources
-File: named collection of related data
-File system: logical view that an operating system provides so that you can
manage information as a collection of files
-Directory: folder
-File type: the kind of information contained in a document
-File extension: the type of the file
Extensions File Type
Txt text data file
mp3, au, wav audio file
gif, tiff, jpg image file
doc, wp3 word processing document
java, c, cpp program source files
-Sequential access: info is processed in order
-Direct access: files accessed by numbers
-File protection determines who can use a file and for what
Read Write / Delete Execut
e
Owner Yes Yes No
Group Yes No No
World No No No
-Directory trees: logical view of a file system
-Root directory: directory at the highest level
-Working directory: subdirectory in which you’re working
-Path: text designation of a file in the file system consisting of the series of
directions you have to go through to find the file
-Absolute path: begins at root and specifies each step (C:/)
-Relative path: begins at current working directory (/ or none)
-Discipline: field of study; each practitioner must be skilled in 4 areas:
oAlgorithmic thinking: express problems in step-by-step procedures to
solve them
oRepresentation: stores data to process it efficiently
oProgramming: combine above 2 into computer software
oDesign: where software serves a useful purpose
-Theory: building of conceptual frameworks and notations to understand
relationships among objects in a domain
-Experimentation: exploring models and determining if they predict new
behaviours

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-Design: constructing computer systems that support work in different application
domains
Topic B
-Number: math unit
-Natural number: 0 and onwards
-Negative number: less than 0
-Integers: negative infinity to positive infinity
-Rational number: fraction
-Byte: 8 bits
-Base: specifies number of digits used in a system
-Positional notation: digits arranged in succession
-*** SEE NOTES ON CONVERTING BINARY TO OTHER ****
-Run-length encoding: repeating a single character
-Pixel: representation by dots
-Resolution: number of pixels used to represent a picture
-Raster-graphics format: storage of image on pixel-by-pixel basis; i.e. BMP,
GIF, JPEG
-Vector representation: images in term of lines and geometric shape
-Video codec: shrinks movie to play it on computer or over a network; uses lossy
compression
-Temporal compression: differences between consecutive frames
-Spatial compression: removes redundant information within a frame
-Keyword encoding: subbing a frequently used word with a single character
-Run-length encoding: replace a long series of a repeated character with a count
of the repetition
-Huffman encoding: bit strings represent each character
-Lossy: uses math models to discard info the human ear can’t hear; info lost in
process of compaction
-Lossless: bit compressed by a form of Huffman encoding; data can be retrieved
without any loss of original info
-Information system: helps us organize and analyse data
-Spreadsheet: allows user to organize and analyse data using a grid of cells
-Circular reference: reference that can never be resolved because the result of
one formula is ultimately based on another, and vice versa
-Analog data: continuous representation, analogous to the actual info it
represents; this signal fluctuates in voltage
-Digital data: discrete representation, breaking info into separate element; only
has a low or high state
-Character set: list of characters and the codes used to represent each one
-ASCII: originally used 7 bits for each character, allowing for 128 unique
characters; to name, see notes!
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