EECS 1520 Midterm: EECS 1520 Midterm #1 Notes

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Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
EECS 1520
John Hofbauer

1 History of Computing • Abacus, 2000 B.C, position beads to indicate values • Mechanical Calculator, Schikard (earliest inventor) • Pascal, first to implement, designed independent of Schikard, (+) and (-) values • Leibniz wheel, for multiplication • Programmable Machines, jacquard loom, punch cards  woven into textiles, used to code computer programs • Analytical Engine, first general purpose computer, Babbage, never fully developed • Hollerith Tabulator • Early “pocket” calculator • Lovelace, fist programmer, calculated Bernoulli numbers • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) • First electronic, general-purpose computer, programs were entered by flipping switches • Hamilton, lead the team who coded programming for the guidance computer, pioneer in software engineering. • International Business Machines (IBM), commercializing early computing machines, mainframe computers, modern servers (present), developed methods for process information to improve computing performance. • Conway, designed supercomputer architecture. • Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) • Ethernet networking technology, laser printers/ copies • Object-oriented programming (OOP) programming paradigm • Workstations Alto and Star were the first to use a window- based graphical user interface (GUI) • Golberg, OOP language Smalltalk-80 and the Alto and Star GUI • Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) • Large-area computer network • Strazisar, co-wrote the program to direct information along ARPANET • Mobile computing, PDA • Hopper, invented the first compiler, credited for coining the term “bug” to describe a malfunction • Turing, “Turing Test” for Artificial intelligence, computer theory, World War II, enigma machine • Shannon, 1937, binary logic, 1948, mathematical theory of communication, principals for encoding, father of the modern information age, Turing machine • IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator installed at Harvard University in 1944. • Mauchly and Eckert, headed ENIAC team • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) first general-purpose electronic digital computer, massive scale and redundant design, decimal internal coding, operational in 1946 • Commissioned by the United States Army for computing ballistic firing tables. • John Von Neumann, “stored program” concept, binary internal coding, CPU-memory/i-o organization, “fetch-decode-execute” instruction cycle • Univac I, first commercial general-purpose computer, 1951, used to forecast U.S elections. • 4 generations of vacuum tube computer circuits, showing the reduction in size during the 1950s. st • Hopper, 1 real “computer scientist”, created compiler, improved efficiency and speed. • Transistor, replaced vacuum tubes, enabled computers + other electronic  smaller + cheaper to build and maintain • Hearing aid  transistor radio • Integrated Circuit (IC), invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in 1957, enabled many transistors to be grouped into a single package • Lowered cost and decreased space compared to using individual transistors, pocket calculators, building block for all electronics. • IBM System/ 360, 1964, family of computers w/ compatible architecture, covering a wide price range, established the standard for mainframes for a decade and beyond • Bell, minicomputer, computing to small business, major competition for IBM, Univac, Silicon valley (Boston) • DEC PDP series, mainframe performance at a fraction of the cost st • Specialized Supercomputers, 1 developed in the late 1970s, high-performance systems used for scientific applications, advanced special purpose designs • Supercomputer  hydrodynamics, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, climate modeling and financial modeling. st • First commercially available microprocessor, 1 used in a programmable calculator, made the personal computer possib
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