1 History of Computing
• Abacus, 2000 B.C, position beads to indicate values
• Mechanical Calculator, Schikard (earliest inventor)
• Pascal, first to implement, designed independent of Schikard, (+) and (-) values
• Leibniz wheel, for multiplication
• Programmable Machines, jacquard loom, punch cards woven into textiles, used to code
• Analytical Engine, first general purpose computer, Babbage, never fully developed
• Hollerith Tabulator
• Early “pocket” calculator
• Lovelace, fist programmer, calculated Bernoulli numbers
• Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)
• First electronic, general-purpose computer, programs were entered by flipping switches
• Hamilton, lead the team who coded programming for the guidance computer, pioneer in
• International Business Machines (IBM), commercializing early computing machines,
mainframe computers, modern servers (present), developed methods for process information
to improve computing performance.
• Conway, designed supercomputer architecture.
• Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)
• Ethernet networking technology, laser printers/ copies
• Object-oriented programming (OOP) programming paradigm
• Workstations Alto and Star were the first to use a window- based graphical user interface
• Golberg, OOP language Smalltalk-80 and the Alto and Star GUI
• Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
• Large-area computer network
• Strazisar, co-wrote the program to direct information along ARPANET
• Mobile computing, PDA
• Hopper, invented the first compiler, credited for coining the term “bug” to describe a
• Turing, “Turing Test” for Artificial intelligence, computer theory, World War II, enigma machine
• Shannon, 1937, binary logic, 1948, mathematical theory of communication, principals for
encoding, father of the modern information age, Turing machine
• IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator installed at Harvard University in 1944.
• Mauchly and Eckert, headed ENIAC team
• ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) first general-purpose electronic digital
computer, massive scale and redundant design, decimal internal coding, operational in 1946
• Commissioned by the United States Army for computing ballistic firing tables.
• John Von Neumann, “stored program” concept, binary internal coding, CPU-memory/i-o
organization, “fetch-decode-execute” instruction cycle
• Univac I, first commercial general-purpose computer, 1951, used to forecast U.S elections.
• 4 generations of vacuum tube computer circuits, showing the reduction in size during the
• Hopper, 1 real “computer scientist”, created compiler, improved efficiency and speed.
• Transistor, replaced vacuum tubes, enabled computers + other electronic smaller + cheaper
to build and maintain
• Hearing aid transistor radio
• Integrated Circuit (IC), invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in 1957, enabled many
transistors to be grouped into a single package • Lowered cost and decreased space compared to using individual transistors, pocket
calculators, building block for all electronics.
• IBM System/ 360, 1964, family of computers w/ compatible architecture, covering a wide price
range, established the standard for mainframes for a decade and beyond
• Bell, minicomputer, computing to small business, major competition for IBM, Univac, Silicon
• DEC PDP series, mainframe performance at a fraction of the cost
• Specialized Supercomputers, 1 developed in the late 1970s, high-performance systems used
for scientific applications, advanced special purpose designs
• Supercomputer hydrodynamics, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, climate modeling
and financial modeling.
• First commercially available microprocessor, 1 used in a programmable calculator, made the
personal computer possib