CSE 1520 EXAM NOTES (A-E).docx

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York University
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
EECS 1520
John Hofbauer

CSE 1520 EXAM NOTES Topic A Computing Systems Computing systems are dynamic entities used to solve problems and interact with their environment They consist of devices programs and dataHardwareThe physical elements of a computing system printer circuit boards wires keyboard SoftwareThe programs that provide the instructions for a computer to execute DataInformation in a form a computer can useAbstractionA mental model that removes complex detailsEarly History of Computing o Abacus2400 BC An early device to record numeric valueso Blaise Pascal 16231662 Created a mechanical device to add subtract dividemultiply o Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 16461716 Created a mechanical device to perform all four whole number operations o Joseph JacquardJacquards Loom 1801 the punched card o Charles Babbage 17921871Difference Engine Analytical Engine o Augusta Ada Byron LovelaceBabages assistant Considered to be the first Programmer Invented the concept of the loop o William Burroughs 18571898 Adding Machine o Herman Hollerith 18601929 Electromechanical Tabulator o Alan Turing 19121954Turing Machinean abstract mathematical model Artificial Intelligence TestingEarly computers launch new era in mathematics physics engineering and economics Harvard Mark I 1939 ENIACElectronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator EDVACElectronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computerfirst machine with a stored program UNIVAC IUniversal Automatic Computer 1951First Generation Hardware 19511959 o Vacuum TubesLarge not very reliable generated a lot of heat o Magnetic DrumMemory device that rotated under a readwrite head o Card ReadersMagnetic Tape Drives Sequential auxiliary storage devices Second Generation Hardware 19591965 o TransistorReplaced vacuum tube fast small durable cheapo Magnetic CoresReplaced magnetic drums information available instantly o Magnetic DisksReplaced magnetic tape data can be accessed directly Third Generation Hardware 19651971 o Integrated CircuitsReplaced circuit boards smaller cheaper faster more reliableo TransistorsNow used for memory construction o TerminalAn inputoutput device with a keyboard and screen Fourth Generation Hardware 1971 o Largescale Integration Great advances in chip technologyo PCs the Commercial Market WorkstationsPersonal Computers were developed as new companies like Apple and Atari came into beingWorkstations emergedParallel Computing and NetworkingParallel Computingo Computers rely on interconnected central processing units that increase processing speed
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