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EN 2608 exam review pdf.pdf

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EN 2710
Tom Wilson

EN 2608 Exam Review: PART 1: Relative Clauses and Noun Complement Clauses: Relative Clause: Noun Complement Clause: *a noun dependent *a noun dependent *contains a wh-word *DOES NOT contain a wh-word ex. [The claim which Kendra made_]NP is ex. [The claim that Kendra withheld untrue. information]NP is untrue. -there is no semantic gap within the dependent clause or a wh-word *has a semantic gap where the main noun is *DOES NOT have a semantic gap where the the interpreted referent main noun is the interpreted referent ex. [The claim that Kendra made_]NP is ex. She had [the opportunity to dos untrue. something worthwhile.]NP -dependent clause has a null subject but the [The claim Kendra made_]NP is untrue. referent is she, not opportunity *can be characterized as restrictive or nonrestrictive *there are 3 types of relative clauses:1. wh- relative 2. that- relative 3. reduced relative Restrictive Relative Clause: Nonrestrictive Relative Clause: *restricts the range of possible referents for *adds additional, incidental, information the NP in which it is contained by making the instead. meaning of the phrase more specific ex. I finally read the book that you ex. Michelle, whom you recently met, has recommended. started a new job. *can have the form of a: 1.wh-relative *can only have the form of a wh-relative 2. that relative 3. reduced relative ex. I finally read [the book which you ex. Michelle, whom you recently met, has recommended.] started a new job. I finally read [the book that you recommended.] I finally read [the book you recommended.] Types of Relative Clauses: 1. Wh-Relative: 2. That Relative: 3. Reduced Relative: *a relative clause that *a relative clause that contains *a relative clause that does contains a wh-contituent the complementizer that not contain a wh-constituent or the complementizer that *semantic gaps in wh- *semantic gaps are interpreted *semantic gaps are interpreted relatives is when the wh- as having the same referent as as having the same referent as constituent expresses the the main Noun of the NP in the main Noun of the NP in function that is associated which the relative clause is which the relative clause is with this gap. contained. contained. ex. The book [which you ex. The man [that_came to ex. The sweater [you lent_ to dinner.] knitted_.] me.] = the man came to dinner. = you knitted the sweater The person [whose car The book [that you lent_to The girl [you were you me.] speaking to_] borrowed.] = you lent the book to me = you were speaking to the The man [whom she is The man [that she is living girl living with_] with_.] = she is living with the man PART 2: Speech vs. Writing: Speech vs. Writing: •Traditional writing systems such as the system used for English (Alphabetic) is not adequate for representing speech because: 1.a letter or a combination of letters can represent different speech sounds (cat, rice, special) 2.a single sound can be represented by different letters or combinations of letters (choose, blue, grew) 3.some letters have no phonetic value (fine, climb, island) 4.some sounds are not represented in spelling (few vs. grew) •Modern Writing Systems include: 1.Logographic Writing Systems: symbols represent words (Chinese) 2.Syllabic Writing Systems: symbols represent syllables (Cree) 3.Alphabetic Writing Systems: symbols represent sound speech Phonetic Alphabet: •a representational system in which there is a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and the symbols used to represent them. Transcription Transcription Symbols for Consonants: Symbols for Vowels: Symbol: Example: Symbol: Example: Symbol: Example p spy š (ʃ) wash : Transcription Symbols for R-Coloured Vowels: b by ž (ʒ) casual i eat •r-coloured vowels are vowels followed by “r” in the same syllable t stop h hot I it d do č (tʃ) child e ate Symbol: Example: k ski ǰ (dʒ) jam ɛ end ir ear ɡ go m mud æ (ash) at er air f fun n know ʌ (wedge) us ɑ are v vote ŋ sing əә (schwa) dramatic or or θ (theta) think l late u ooze əәr (ŗ) earn ð then r run U put ur poor s see y (j) yes o own z zoo w wet ɑ on ai (aj) eye au (aw) owl ɔi (ɔj) oil Articulatory Classification: Articulatory Classification of Consonants: order=voice➜place➜manner Manner: Voicing: Place: Bilabial Labio Dental Alveolar Post Palatal Velar Glottal Dental Alveolar Stop voiceless p t k voiced b d ɡ Fricative voiceless f θ s š (ʃ) h voiced v ð z ž (ʒ) Affricate voiceless č (tʃ) voiced ǰ (dʒ) Nasal voiced m n ŋ Approximant voiced lateral l voiced central w r (ɹ) y (j) w Additional Articulatory Terms: obstruent: stops, fricatives and affricates sonorant: nasals and approximants liquid: l and r sounds glide: j and w sounds sibilant: alveolar fricatives/affricates and post alveolar fricatives/affricates (s, z, š, ž, č, ǰ) Articulatory Classification of Vowels:order=high➜front unrounded➜tense Fronnt: Central: Bacck Unnroundeed Roundded Unrounnded Roundded Unnroundeed Rooundedd tense i u High lax I U tense e o Mid lax ɛ əә ʌ ɔ Low æ a ɑ Phoneme vs. Allophone: Phoneme: Allophone: *a contrastive unit of sound *any of the different phonetic forms of a phoneme ex. tometo and toməәto=tomato *represented between slash brackets*represented between square brackets ex. /p/ ex. [p] Positional Variation and English Phonological Processes: 1. Vowel Nasalization: **vowel (i, I, e, ɛ, æ, əә, ʌ, a, ɑ, u, U, o, ɔ) +nasal consonant (m, n, ŋ)** •vowels are nasalized when followed by a nasal consonant •vowel nasalization is represented by a tilde placed on top of the vowel •ex. [ɛ̃]= a mid front unrounded lax nasal vowel seed = [sid] *non-nasalized vowel* vs. seen = [sĩn] *nasalized vowel* log = [lɑɡ] *non-nasalized vowel* vs. lawn = [lɑ̃n] *nasalized vowel* 2. Canadian Raising: **/ɑi/+voiceless consonant (p, t, k, f, θ, s, š, h, č)=[ʌi]+voiceless consonant** **/ɑu/+voiceless consonant (p, t, k, f, θ, s, š, h, č)=[ʌu]+voiceless consonant** •the diphthongs /ɑi/ and /ɑu/ are raised to [ʌi] and [ʌu] when followed by a voiceless consonant •ex. eyes = [aiz] *not Canadian Rising* vs. ice = [ʌis] *Canadian Rising* lie = [lai] *not Canadian Rising* vs. life = [lʌif] *Canadian Rising* cow = [kau]*not Canadian Rising* vs. couch = [kʌuč]*Canadian Rising* 3. Aspiration: **voiceless stops (p, t, k) are aspirated when they occur first in a word** •voiceless stops are aspirated word initially •aspiration is represented by a superscripted “h” placed after the voiceless stop •ex. [pʰ]=an aspirated voiceless bilabial stop spy = [spai] *not aspirated* vs. pie = [pʰai] *Aspirated* star = [star] *not aspirated* vs. tar = [tʰar] *Aspirated* ski = [ski] *not aspirated* vs. keep = [kʰip] *Aspirated* 4. Glottalization: **voiceless stops (p, t, k) are glottalized when they occur last in a word** •voiceless stops are glottalized word finally •glottalization is represented by an apostrophe placed after the voiceless stop •ex. [p’] a glottalized voiceless bilabial stop leap = [lip’] *glottalized* beat = [bit’] *glottalized* 5. Approximant Devoicing: **aspirated stop (p, t, k)+approximants (w, l, r, j)**=voiceless •approximants (liquids and glides) are voiceless when preceded by an aspirated stop •voicelessness for approximants (w, l, r, j) is represented by an open circle under the approximant •ex. [ḷ] a voiceless alveolar liquid slap = [slæp] *not approximant devoicing* vs. play = [pʰḷe] *Approximant Devoicing* wish = [wIš] *not approximant devoicing* vs. twist = [tʰẉIst]*Approximant Devoicing* rye = [rai] *not approximant devoicing* vs. cry = [kʰṛai] *Approximant Devoicing* 6. Dentalization: **alveolar consonant (t, d, s, z, n, l, r)+dental consonant (θ, ð)=alveolar consonant pronounced with dental articulation** •alveolar consonants (t, d, s, z, n, l, r) are pronounced with dental articulation when followed by a dental consonant (θ, ð) •represented by placing a diacritic ( ̪̪ ) under the alveolar consonant •ex. [ṉ] a voiced dental nasal ten = [tʰɛ̃ ] *not dentalized* vs. tenth = [tʰɛṉ̃ θ] *Dentalized* wit = [wIt] *not dentalized* vs. width = [wIṯθ] *Dentalized* 7. l-Velarization: **l is last in a word or comes before a consonant in a word, it is pronounced with secondary velar articulation** •/l/ is pronounced with secondary velar articulation when word final or followed by a consonant •represented by a wavy line through the middle of the l •ex. [ɫ]= a voiced velarized alveolar lateral loot = [lut] *not velarized* vs. bell = [bɛɫ] *Velarized* slide = [slaid] *not velarized* vs. milk = [mIɫk] *Velarized* 8. Glottal Replacement: **/t/+/əәn/=/t/ pronounced as a voiceless glottal stop [ʔ]** •/t/ is pronounced as [ʔ] (a voiceless glottal stop) when followed by /əәn/ •t is replaced with [ʔ] •ex. but = [bʌt] *Not Glottal Replacement* vs. button = [bʌʔəә̃n] *Glottal Replacement* mitt = [mIt] *
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