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ENG 2130
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YORK UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering ENG 2120 / EATS 2620 FUNDAMENTALS OF SURVEYING: LAB 1 submitted to Prof. Wang Jian-Guo York University, Ontario Abstract This lab focuses on using precise instruments to measure the distance between two points. The lab is split into 3 parts. The first two take a cruder approach to measuring the distance whereas the third is much more accurate. In the first part we measured the distance between a point on a pillar and another point on the floor. A steel and fibreglass measuring tape were used and two measurements taken by each student. The standard deviation was computed and the average taken. This was done to weed out any errors in measurement. Part two of the lab focussed on measuring the distance between two points on the floor. Two plumb bobs were used to identify the points on the floor. The steel and fibre glass tapes were used again and two measurements taken by each student. The third part of the lab we used a stadia to measure the distance between two points which are 15 metres apart. Each student took turns calibrating the apparatus to suit their individual profile. Results from Part 1 of the lab indicate a very precise measurement of the points. Part 2 shows similar precision in the results. Findings from Part 3 exhibit variations in the measurements taken by each student. Introduction The intention of this preliminary lab exercise is to introduce students to fundamental skills used in the surveying field. The measuring instruments used in this lab are fibreglass and steel measuring tape, and the stadia. In conjunction with these instruments are secondary measuring devices used to ensure measurements are accurate and precise. These consist of the plumb bob and levels. Measuring tapes are frequently used to measure distances. Ideally, the tape is unrolled and laid across a surface between measured points. Suspending the tape in the air will inevitably cause sag, and cause measurements to be inaccurate. The stadia method is the resolution to long distance measurements. A transit and level are used to take measurements using the stadia rod. The rod is place at a distance away, and measurements are read using the transit reticle, which make three reading targets. Calculations are made from these readings to determine the distance between the instrument and the stadia rod. Levels are used to ensure that measurements are taken when the instruments are perpendicular to the floor or surface. The level on the transit was to ensure the instrument was mounted parallel to the floor, and a hand level was used to keep the stadia rod held perpendicular to the floor. Objective To compare the accuracy in horizontal measurements, between measuring tapes and the stadia method. Establishing basic surveying skills such as, recording data, keeping field notes, and field sketching. Being able to analyze the data collected to calculate accuracy and error deviation. Results Part 1: Measurements Taken From Pillar to Floor Student Measurements (m) Steel Fiberglass Vincent 10.125 10.21 10.125 10.23 Kenneth 10.340 10.38 10.310 10.33 Luke 10.33 10.29 10.260 10.30 Aaditya 10.124 10.13 10.125 10.122 Average (m) 10.217 10.249 Standard Deviation (m) 0.1018 0.0812 Relative Accuracy 1/100 1/126 Diagram of Experimental Setup for Part 1 X Tape Pillar plumb bob ~10m X Part 2: Measurements Taken Between Two Points on Floor Student Measurements (m) Steel Fiberglass Vincent 15.22 15.24 15.23 15.19 Kenneth 15.25 15.21 15.21 15.18 Luke 15.21 15.193 15.205 15.181 Aaditya 15.211 15.246 15.234 15.192 Average (m) 15.221 15.204 Standard Deviation (m) 0.0155 0.025 Relative Accuracy 1/981 1/608 Diagram of Experimental Setup for Part 2 Tape plumb bob plumb bob X X ~15m Part 3: Stadia Measurements Student Measurements (m) Lower Middle Upper AB 1.495 1.580 1.645 AC Kenneth 1.416 1.573 1.716 AB 1.494 1.569 1.644 AC 1.416 1.571 1.713 AB 1.565 1.640 1.714 AC Vincent 1.4
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