A Summary of ENVS 1000 (Term 1).docx

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Environmental Studies
ENVS 1000
Peter Timmerman

HunterGatherers Hunter gathers have around for 95 of our existence They lived in a much richer environment than todays world Women gathered food from plants while the men would attempt to hunt animals Since they could not keep food for long periods they would often have ritualsparties where food was distributed and consumed They were very resilient and would change eating habits to adapt to their situation A low population was kept through infanticide and longer pregnancy periodsbreastfeeding These societies were quasinomadic and would move from place to place familiar places First Agricultural Revolution In a sense it arrived in various places around the world at the same timeMexico China and so on Domestication of crops was favored because certain crops were able to flourish in the warm weather that preceded the ice age The women were most likely the ones who discovered the potential in agriculture as they selecting the more favorable seeds Dogs pigs cattle sheep and goats were domesticated to help with a more stationary life Farmers could no longer be nomadic too much to be done The scale of risk dynamic become more complicated now smaller risks are avoided without travel and hunting but larger risks are able to cripple entire societies Easter Island is an ex Agrarian cities those dependent on farming as a primary resource for subsistence are a byproduct of the first agricultural revolutionSecond Agricultural Revolution The second revolution occurred with the rise of agrarian civilizations Sumeria is an example of one of the first cities that saw a major rise in population density and agriculture as a result of agrarian cities Vast cities like Babylon were formed rapidly they were typically located around bodies of water and were major trading centers Governments eventually arose as there became a need to predict planting times flood patterns and settle land disputes Surpluses were gathered as a type of tax and tribute to the leader as it was believed that they had a closer connection with the Gods As these civilizations progressed accounting systems and alphabets began to emerge to assist in surplus distribution and trade One of the most crucial outcomes of all this was a shift from oral cultures to written documentation The Medieval World View Major trading civilizations replaced the ancient huntergatherers cosmological view with what is referred to as the medieval worldview cosmology This essentially was the belief that everything has a natural resting place the heaviest of materials those on earth and at its core were seen to be furthest away from God Essentially everything desires to move away from the center of earth and towards the heavens earth was believed to be the center of the universe still The universe has transparent circles upon which everything rotatesthe largest of these is God Everyday life is views as chaotic wilderness lower earth but those who followed Christianity belonged to what was called higher earth Western tradition of polytheism was aimed at attack the God systems of other cultures in hopes of achieving a hegemonic religious culture Ecological Imperialism Start of Collapse Spices were very important during the middle ages if meat went bad spices could help cover up both taste and smell Spices were considered a global commodity of the time many wealthy people would pay handsomely for a small amount of spices nutmeg etc The Spice Islands in Southeast Asia were the primary source for spices and so Columbus
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