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Environmental Studies
ENVS 1000
Peter Timmerman

ENVS 1000 – September 15, 2010 lecture #1 Homework / Readings: Important Questions: What does it mean to be a human, an earthling, an environmentalist? How do I survive/thrive from 2010-2090? • Environmental studies require us to think long term • What is life going to be like in the future? What is our situation, really? • Think about who the liars, cheaters are o Own thought: politicians What decisions should I make about how to live rightly and accordingly? • How do I sort through the confusion? • What things I want to take in, and what people want me to think Something to think about: Picture of the Earth: • Someone made the decisions of taking a picture of the Earth • In order to take the picture, had to be wearing technology suit to keep from freezing • Ambiguity Picture of Vase/2people • Our minds are constantly taking information in The world is mapped by satellites • The pictures of the world taken by satellites have consequences: In an era of monitoring equipment, we are watching various species go extinct due to our demand for products Human beings are now altering entire physical systems of the planet; including 30% of the net primary productivity • Everything that is produced by plants and algae in the sea: purpose to feed animals, and shyt, humans take away 30% E.g. Almost 1,500 fish species threatened or endangered, 35% of evaluated reptiles threatened; 86 critically endangered, 50% of invertebrates threatened or endangered Cell of a human being metaphoric to the earth Living cells inside, membrane protects it Body=Environment? • There are more cells of other creatures in your body than there are you (trillions) • You are 75% water • 2% of the weight of your body is lymph glands: your body is at every moment creating new antibodies against foreign substances • Practically all cells of your body are being replaced, roughly every few months • Lungs, mucous membranes, skin—“quasi-open filters” • Body and brain constantly adapt, learn We are all connected in the Earth • We breathe in the oxygen produced by fossil fuels million years ago • We are all home to millions of bacteria, mites Projected World population: • High Fertility: 2.6 children per women • Medium Fertility: • Low Fertility: World Issues: Projected GDP: would increase in China, USA, India, Continental Europe (a little) Global Grain Production: increased as more wealthy= eat more meat than vegetables= more grain is needed to feed animals. World Fertilizer use: increased Global Meat Production: increased as well Fish farming Increased as a result of Capture production being at its maximum Oil production will increase; plus demand will keep increasing, potentially outstripping supply Energy use increasing: oil, coal, natural gas, renewables, nuclear Car registrations increasing From 1958-2004: CO2 increased from 315-375 concentration (PPM) Global temperature rising: glaciers melting Global water consumption: from 550 in 1990 to 5000+ in 2025 Themes in class: How natural and human systems differ Brief look at ecological Science/ Energy Views of Nature and Environment through history Romanticism/Science and the rise of the Modern Environmental Movement Special Themes: Environment in Non=western cultures/religions Emerging Issues for the 21 Century Ecological Economics Environmental Ethics Global Climate Change: A case Study Water: A Case study Urban landscapes & Green design Gender Environments Case Study: monarch butterflies: danaus plexippus • Migrates over 4 generations and 2000 miles • Feeds on milkweed (glycosides in the milkweed make feeders on butterflies sick ( • Migration is threatened by multiple factors • Migrate to Mexican to woods to mate • They die on the way there or the way back o So why do they do it? No answer September 22, 2010 lecture #2 Readings on Moodle are for the following week The formation of stars Hydrogen burning creates energy for us to live (present in the sun) 8 minutes for the sunlight to reach earth speed: 300km a sec. 3 billion years ago = first life: single cell creatures 600 million years: fossils 350 million years ago: early Cambrain Tilobite 230 million years ago: Pangaea: continental shift 165 million years ago: mammal like dogs Possible life on moons? Ice and activity on Europa (Jupiter) and volcanic activity on Io Enceladus – Saturn’s 6 moon: complete ice planet, maybe covering up something. Geysers: hot water is present Revenge of Gaia (book) Lovelock Planetary Atmospheres and their compositions can be detected by looking at it (spectre analysis). Can compare the gas composition on earth to other planets to see if there is plausible life Gaia Hypothesis: Earth biosphere is manipulated by life to sustain life itself. The Earth can be considered hypothetically, as if it were a living being. Extremophiles appeared in deep trenches (Galapagos Rift) Chemotrophs—use hydrogen sulfide/water: these things come out of the earth’s crust pushing the crust further apart Bacteria: Desulforudis audaxiator: deep in ground no sun for 10 million yeas feeds on energy derived from sulfur. Case study: Mount St. Helens explosion May 18, 1980: what happens if you completely destroy an ecosystem and how does it repair itself? When you destroy an ecosystem, how long does it take to repair? Krakatoa: volcano that blew up in 1883: 15 km of blow site was toast Sometimes blow goes to the stratosphere: dust in sky: beautiful sunsets Looks like wasteland near the death zone, dust clouds. Repairs: trees and weeds started to grow. Underground creatures: moles, rats survived the blast by burrowing underground 6 months later, bears prints were found. More and more growth and animals started coming in over time. Ecological succession: as a natural system develops, it prepares for its next stage and it complexifies. Lichens mosses  herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings  Aspen Black spruce, Jack pine  White spruce, Balsam fir, paper birch Pioneer community  Climax community E.g. seagulls were a problem, but just waited for trees to grow, seagulls went away. Lawns and swimming pool desperately trying to turn itself into an ecosystem September 23, 2010 tutorial #1 What makes us different from animals? We are locating ourselves as entities that are different from nature • Human beings are able to make prediction: take actions, problem solving • Technology • Learn from experience • More structure to communicate, rational thinking • Ego Human beings are apart of nature, but society now dictates that we are apart from nature Questions to think about. Humans have a dominant role in the relationship between humans vs. nature What is the role of cultural/ religion in shaping the way we see nature? What is the role of economic development and how it contributes to this relationship? From the reading: It was the unintended cargo of these voyages intending to revolutionize us views of the moon? The voyage instead Revolutionize our views of the Earth. Science and technology, art, history: the picture is not a picture of the earth. However is a picture of our development as a society. Now that we can see the earth from above, we feel that can grasp the earth as a whole and control it. We feel like God, as being able to look down from above. September 29, 2010 lecture #3 Next week essays topics are assigned Origins of university: Greece: embarrassing questions on life: was forced to drink poison Buddhist schools started to rise: Walanda Islamic university world: many came to the Western world, then evolved into medieval university in 1100-1200. Students run the universities, would pool resources and hire a teacher. About 70 years, administration was implemented as the previous system that did not work. Mainly for philosopher students. Our cloaks and graduation hats originated from the Medieval times. Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (1648-84): first woman to get a doctorate: university of Padua Universities began to split into more categories. People splitting into different trades, and universities now had to provide training to meet their individual needs. Montaigney: 1570: essai (try): people write essays to see if they understand something People who discovered anything would report back to the academy= “Reports”: that is why science people have to make reports 1860: universities in Germany researched different chemicals resulted in chorine gas being used in WWI. Lecture: Models give a representation of the future People who dislike thinking long-term hate models Permafrost models Hydro cycle: movement of warm water away from the equator north. Further and further north gets cooled, and salty, dense and goes to the bottom and works it way back to the equator: takes 1000 years to complete this cycle. Question: if Greenland ice melts, this cycle might close down: cold salty water would be replaced with cold fresh water. Shutting off of the Gulf Stream current. Natural systems: young ecosystem: Energy flow -> growth + maintenance Mature climax ecosystem: maintenance is primary: energy flowmaintenance + growth E.g. Mining: using energy to take stuff in ores and concentrate it in a place where you can do something with it Human beings do not produce anything: real producer is the natural world; we just consume them. Ecosystems are connected in many ways, if we eat and capture only one type we screw up the web of life. Boom or Bust? How long can we keep this up? Human population has increased by exponential growth Logistic growth: when population is restricted to growth by the environment. E.g. Pollution St. Matthews, 29 reindeers were brought onto the island, increased to 6000, soon the population reduced to 42, exceeded carrying capacity of the environment. (ate all the food) Predators must not overkill their pray, or else overshoots the carrying capacity of the environment. Ecological niche: many competition, find ways to avoid competition and separate. Owls hunt in the night. And other owls in the same area hunt during the day. Plagues: massive outbreaks of disease (concentrated amount of people in an area) Black Death (1333-1369): killed a third of Europe: once population went up, fell massively due to plague. Tutorial: Sustainability is impossible to sustain, so why should we strive for it? Maybe conserve resources? Finding other innovative ways to preserve resources as a result of depleting resources. Thomas ____ what he predicted…and what he said was right or wrong What are hot spots? What is the Ber What does this article says about biological extinction? Gaia reading: We are a part of the Earth, many things make up the Earth, water, oxygen, land. Taking the picture= putting humans above the Earth. Who is Jim Lovelock? • Invented the Gaia hypothesis What is spectro analysis? • Charting and analyzing the chemical structure of a planet by looking at the bands of their optical spectrum. Gaia Hypothesis • Gaia Hypothesis is the theory of finding out different breakdowns of a planet and basing conclusions of that fact of the planets inhabitants and ecological structure What does Timmerman call the strength of the Gaia hypothesis? Oct 6, 2010 Collapse Vulnerability Toronto Harbour is a degraded ecosystem Natural system: degraded system, system with critical species that are threatened, shrinking system, system facing unknown threats to which no defence has been created. E.g. top predator taken away from ecosystem, the whole ecosystem messes up Shrinking the ecosystem has effect on many animals; some animals can only live on edge or depth of forests Nuclear emergency planners: all talk but no action Resilience: the capacity of a system to bounce back from a stress What makes a system resilience? Available resources to rely on. Western countries went to Germany and Japan and researched what they did when they were bombed. Japan’s resources were cut off by Western embargoes=gg Social systems: appropriately flexible strategies, access to resources, memory. More reliable=stop=gg Escalator vs. elevator: how much resilience do we want? Easter island: isolated 1000 miles. Mayan Collapse: 700-800AD, survived in tropical jungle in large number for almost 1000 years, severe drought considered main theory The Meaning of Life: Entropy In order to restore a state of the Earth, must use energy to restore it First Law of Thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed Second Law of Thermodynamics: Solution: decrease entropy by sucking energy from the sun, decrease local entropy by sucking energy from chemical goods Case Study: Mauve and Synthetics Oct 20, 2010 Talk about chemicals in everyday products Our relationship with the earth if flawed- How have humans begins thought about nature and the environment? Self / world? How have they lived and believed? Environments and Myths: Cosmologies and Concerns Nature/Cultural: Wild, Tamed Animals: Fire is what separates us from the wild Domestic pets vs. Wild animals: 63% of American households have a pet, but 10 million pets a year, mostly cats and dogs. Cloning cats: love cats so much to clone. Human beings were tool users and no other species can do it: but chimpanzees use it. The idea that you can put up something, and do something else of it. Humans can pick up something, and reshape it and use it for something totally different. Birds can design long sticks and use it to ply bugs out of the trees. (Crow experiments) Humans can live in all climates: connection to local environment is not definite Burying people (ritual): acknowledge their existence, possibly believed in after-world Rituals: white magic: imitations of animals, rituals (dance similar to the heavens, stars. during sunset. Black magic: same thing but to manipulate the universe: combinations of elements to control the stars, humans Aboriginal Australians believe when dreaming, the world is transformed into its original weird state, but when you wake up, everything decided to be normal again Mythologies and cosmologies are today owned by capitalist and corporations. E.g. Saturday morning cartoons. From an extensive to an intensive self Participation in the world as part of oneself Other beings/things in the world are spiritual presences The cosmos is alive down of the least part Humans are not in control Oct 27, 2010 Environmental History/Myth: To the Rise of the Cities • Hunter-gatherers (1,000,000 BCE): tribal, magic/totemism: How are we related to others? • Agriculturalists (10,000 BCE): seasonal rituals: How do things grow? • Early urbanists (5,300 BCE): sacrifices, kings/priests: Who is in charge/in power? • !Kung bushmen of Kalahari desert: moved around due to civilization, left alone b/c no one wanted land. 1950’s: people came and tried to organize them Hunter-gatherers: • Mostly gathers (women) supply the majority of foodstuffs • Hunters (men) supply the glamour meat • Populations kept down by infanticide and spaced births • Lots of leisure time (original affluent society) • Only property what people can carry… • Their myths are myths of relationship o Slash and burn: cutting down a chunk of forest and burning it: kills insects and improves soil quality, new life springs up, new areas for cultivation. o Keep burning new areas, is sustainable, after x years, move back: but need small population, large space (does not exist anymore) Case study: The Kaluli of New Guinea • Living in impenetrable rainforest: sounds must be piercing or else leaves will muffle sounds • Rituals: dances all night: incorporating songs, messages coming from birds Relationship between humans vs. animals, • Some animals disappeared when humans inhabited, domestication of animals. • Domestication kept moving south until it made towns emerge. • Trading seeds with nomads, locals, can start storing stuff: pottery (clay) to keep stuff on • Keeping wild animals as pets: a boar with tusk turns into the domestic pig. Last ones to get domesticated are horses, b/c hard to tame a horse. Agrarian Societies= Stratified & State Societies • Food producers: produced on a larger scale • Use of technology, discovery of irrigation systems • Domestication of animals • More complex division of labour: specialists: religious leaders, soldiers, artists: full-time occupations o Social Stratification: “Is the existence within a society of two or more differentially ranked groups controlling unequal amounts of power resources, privileges of prestige” • Surplus: for first time in history, we had more than we needed • Private property arouse because people needed to protect their property. E.g. tools, seeds, farming equipment • Tribute: a social relationship in which the group is dominant & the other is subordinate: the subordinate party is obligated to make a payment to the dominant group in recognition of its subordination • Taxes, corvee system: by which the subordinate were forced to work for free to the dominant group • Public duties: life serving in army was a way to pay a tribute • Share cropping: peasants were expected to surrender part of the crop • More complex political organization • State: a political system a form of political association that societies develop the combine system of administration keeping track of labour • Religion: theocracy: state that are ruled by religion • Secular societies: Religion=State Fertility rites: to keep soil growing things Sexual metaphors: male plows, female furrows Real surplus regions in agricultural areas: arrogation Exploit the production of food and agricultural products = surplus = hierarchy system Animals being sacrificed due to rituals (Lion slain by king to Gods) Believe that after you die, disconnected form the natural cycles: people must slain animals and put their blood in trenches so ancestors could “get” the blood Believed that the higher you are, the closer you are the gods in power. (Big structures were constructed) City plans were devised: how waste/food/transportation must be dealt with Kings must be able to negotiate with Gods in order to keep the civilization going Warka Vase in Iraq: piece of art layered drawings depicting the lifestyle of the people Inanna: Sumerian goddess of war, cities, power: fertility goddess from 2000bce-100AD Triptolemus: god of agriculture Earliest writing- roughly 3500BCE as I-owe-u’s to the development of numbers to keep track of how many seeds farmers owed each other. Middle Earth: place where peasants work, area of practicality Upper Earth: is where nature is turned into parks, gardens, zoo: where people demonstrate their powers: priests November 3, 2010 • Marshes and rough natural environments are not inhabited by humans, which is why Robin Hood hid in the deep forest • Environmental destruction reeked on Iraq by its own leader • Drains to drain out the marsh o Canadian money put into this area to try to resurrect this area • People at the top: statue, priests who live on the surpluses from the tax of people • Mythology: Male world (above world): sunset/age, growing, birth o Female World: night time, death, mystery and unknown • Inanna  Ishtar  Astarte • Christianity Neolithic Site: build churches on top of burial sites of other religion o Celtic cross with ornamental interlace (religions become merged) • History of Halloween: demon day because following day was day of the gods. • Greece: a lot of cities: traders or merchants who visit all these countries: realize that many different Gods and stories • Polytheism: the worship of many gods • But also the emergence of physics: a world of physical explanation for phenomena (e.g. a universe of atoms) • Anaximander: 610-546 BCE: the fundamental element is an undifferential mass • Anaximenes: 585-525 BCE: fundamental element is air • Heraclitus: 535-475 BCE: fundamental element is fire • Pythagoras: 582-496 BCE: cosmos ordered by number and geometries • Empedocles: 490-430 BCE: 4 fundamental elements: earth, water, air, fire • Democritus: 460-370 BCE: there is only so far you can cut things before you get down to atoms, fundamental particles • Greek Oracles told obvious fortune cookie tales • Greek statues become more and more correct in terms of anatomy over the Greek cultures • Christianity spreading around the Roman Empire • Quarantine: Jesus goes into the desert for 40 days and 40 nights, where he endure many temptations. • Medieval cosmology: falling sin and fallen nature: chaos at the bottom o As move up, lower earth, up to Second Nature, higher earth, places of paradise, and a city works along the fire, earth, water, air model November 10, 2010 th Dante 14 century says that Hell was a frozen space; other people said Hell is a fiery place, due to volcanoes Angels support activities of Jesus (God) Elements of the medieval world view/nature: • Natural processes and creatures are symbolic of the spiritual realm • Creatures are the “second book of God” • They being to a web of analogical reference • Microcosm/macrocosm Logic/Analogic Standard Logic: Socrates is a man All men are mortal Therefore, Socrates is mortal Analogic/Metaphoric logic: Grass dies I am going to die, There I am grass All constellations are assigned to a particular body part, and if find something connected to Scorpio, can heal a certain body part. Mandrakes are caused by human blood dripping on the ground and shriek when you pull them out Medical science evolution: optics layout, veins of human body (965-1040) 12 century hospital Damascus Syria (first hospital) When men went out to war, women basically played bigger role in society, introduced manners, Queen, lady of the house, setting culture down of pop culture (romance) Making it harder for men to woo women (must talk nice, Valentine’s Day, gardens at night) St. Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) • Patron saint of the Environment • Romantic figure • Devoted to voluntary poverty as a way of seeing God in all things • Struggled with the paradoxes of emerging modern society: betrayed in the end? Believed that the scarcity only exist because people get greedy and take and hold onto products they do not necessary need When he gave up property and possessions, relationship with animals was positive Tutorial: How can organized religion affect views of the environment? How are religions tied to views of the environment? How religion shapes our way of thinking, our view of Nature? Hunter-Gatherer-Egulitarian -> stratified agrarian Polytheism Montheism  Theocracy (Where state is ruled by religion) Hierarchical organization of cosmos only one supreme creator Religion was about Moral issues: good or bad issues God had a human face People asked fundamental questions related about how the world was created who created everything and to make sense and logic about our history Polytheism: many Gods were connected to Nature Shaman: full time priest that acted as a median between God and the people No hierarchy of spirits/Gods, individual prophets, decentralized symbolic figure Christian Synthesis Judaism (Hebrews): the belief on ONE God: the existence of the Holy Land (Jersualem) war against local Gods The Greek Contribution: The emergence of a group of thinkers (Ionian philosophers) who began to ask questions about the natural of the physical world: what is the world made of? Are there underlying elements that go in the making of things? Are there rules or laws by which the world operates? Science: people started to question everyday life: observations, experiences, and logical thinking Now that God has a human form, humans feel superior to nature and treat it differently Nature was symbolic in the medieval times: nature requires to be created by a human being Because it helps to create a history about Jesus, to make sense about the story of his life Before (we thought we created nature, before science and reasoning) • Hunter, polytheistic • Respect for nature After • Agrarian, Monotheistic • Being able to study and reason with it with science and technology: o Created hierarchy • Can manage things: creates materialistic possessions November 17, 2010 The Birth of Modern Science • What is the changing role of technology as a contributor to the rise of the West? • What is different about the modern view of the environment/natural world? o Horses, stirrups, harnesses, ploughs  Central Asia 4000 BC first domestication of horses  Put wheels on horses (cart)  Transportation on land instead of just water travel o Energy from water, wind + new inventions  Watermill used to grind grain, make electricity, windmills used to do same thing but without water o Paper/printing  Chinese woodblock printing o Compasses  Invented which Western countries adapted o Gunpowder  Used for firecrackers (entertainment): Wan Hu and his 47 rockets chair: exploded and gg  Why did scientific revolution not happen in China? • Europe was in constant state of war and many different ideas, countries and different religions generated more scientific views • China’s experimentation was “top down” stopped and started • China’s commitment to “analogic” logics of thinking were too strong to break free from 1200- the arrival of the clock: abstract, neutral, universal standard time • Appropriate times to certain thing • Standard unit of time for the world, analog clock: sundial • Water clock: holes on a jug to keep track of time • Clock: different cities had different times: complications if traveling 1400- The arrival of perspective- The development of abstract space though perspective • Architecture, art all incorporated perspective, past arts were all 2d • Very complex, as a thorough understanding of the eye is needed 1400s- Renaissance interest in details of the natural world/anatomy/ individual • Images of fetis, images of the heart by • Anatomy of skeletons. Muscles, 3d pictures of humans 1543 and after: the replacement of an earth centred universe with a sun and then a non- centred universe • The conclusion that Earth revolves around the Sun • Invention of glasses: convex: near sighted, concave: far sighted • Nicholas Copernicus: discovered all planets revolved around sun • Galilio: discovered sun spots • Studies of atoms how they make up the world • Dropped items off the Leaning Tower and discovered gravity 1420- The Ocean voyages, leading to the discovery of the New World • Marco Polo: • Rumors, Myths about foreigners being mutated creatures • Trade routes • Spices: pepper, nutmeg, salt were REALLY valuable • Europe would have to travel all the way to Australia region: very complex route o Wars would arise in the spice island as countries would fight over them • Trade winds in Africa: rumours of sea monsters: require daring people to travel • When discovered natives: questions arouse: cannibals? Are they actually human? Were they dangerous? o Within a couple of months, brought settlers and enslaved the natives • Adopted foods such as potatoes, tomatoes, corn • Gave diseases to the Natives • Aztecs: sacrifices to the Sun God, ripped hearts out of people • Cattle and horses and ranches, sugar plantations were introduced into the European culture • Spanish Forcibly converted Native villages to Christianity: Berolomme de las Casas: defender of Indian rights o Sepulveda- Las Casa’s opponent in the 1550 debate: what is the status of these peoples? Debated with the universities 1600- The elimination of special internal qualities in physical objects in the spatial environment and the development of the experimental model Portuguese and colonizers would force the poorer regions to trade or else get bombed Banking system created Buy gold coins as currency: money changer in Venice that charged a changing fee Whole new idea of investing in the ship’s return: if sank= gg Banks run by family that lend money national banks Banks starting lending out money When everyone wanted their money back, not enough money to give out Banks gave out bad loans to people People wanted to make money out of international trade: set up a company, East India Country designed to pool money and send out ships and get spices When sunk ship: limited liability: only lose the money that they invested, and cannot be sued Stock exchanges for the chairs of the companies Centralized banking system was built Vacuum machine invented James Watt engine 1800 invented Steam engines Railway trains in the 1820’s: caused more movement and settlement of the north Recent study states people only stayed 3 kilometres within their birth place More machinery and farm equipment are invented Steam ships with steam turbines invented Clothing: factories and mass production Machines are slowly replacing human beings Women working in the weaving process in factories (women in workplace), children were being used in the mines (orphans) Potatoes and turnips were planted Fields were planted with clover and alfalfa can feed animals and inject nitrate into the soil 3 field rotations Tutorial: Who was St. Francis? • Abandoned all processions What was his philosophy of provisions? • If you trust in God, everything will be good How is he considered an environmentalist? • Got in touch of animals, lived in forested • When abandoned property, broke barriers between humans and animals • Poverty changed his perception on the world • Able to see all the beings on the earth as friends, ability to speak/tame animals How did he threaten the power of the Catholic Church? • The churches foundations based on money and possession, and when St. Francis proved that these things were not necessary, people might not support Church How did his teachings challenge our lifestyles? And our notions of the natural world? • Our lifestyle depends on property and St. Francis is contradicting that fact • Challenges the idea of Capitalism What is the purpose of the essay, what is the research question the student is trying to answer? What is the thesis question? November 24, 2010 10 MC, Definitions (Who was St. Francis), paragraph, short essays Slavery and Imperialism • African Slave Trade 1500-1870 • Many would die on the boat • The ones that survived would work in sugar plantations • Anti Slavery: signing of petitions, created expert panels to investigate slavery • Olaudo Equiano: speeches of his experiences as a slave • William Wilberforce: best friend of PM, became committed to anti-slavery: until British outlawed slave trade December 1, 2010 Individual expression freedom vs. Mass Conformity Personal relationships vs. industrial machine Community vs. factory The unspoiled vs. the spoiled Tutorial: The impacts of Colonialism Two different impacts: For the Colonies: A: The destruction of the social / cultural/ political economic structures. The imposition of a new religion B: The exploitation of human beings through slavery and spread of diseases C: Ecological impacts: introduction of mono-cultural: single crop such as sugar cane vs. diversified crop system, the colonial powers introduced the plantations: ecological impacts: soil erosion, fertile, destruction of ecosystems such as tropical forests D: Dependency Theory: nations are tied to the mother countries and are dependent on the mother countries for economic stability. All natural resources and capital are transferred to the mother country and the country is exploited for their resources and labour. For the Colonizers, Imperial Powers = Europe A: Colonialism gave the European nations more resources and capital to exploit Capitalism as a world system: plundering was the most important means of accumulation of capital The mass of capital that was accumulated promoted economic growth and encouraged entrepreneurship which heavily contributes to the industrial revolution. Atlantic Trade: the transportation of slaves from Africa to the New World, and the transportation of raw materials from the New World to Europe, which it was transformed to consumer goods. Mono-crop: internal markets Demand for raw materials declining: substitutes for inputs in production: no longer need for cotton because can be substituted by polyester Industrial Revolution: period of rapid, economic, demographic, and technological change which took place in Europe from 1780~1820 Features: • Demographic Transition • Revolution in Transportation: canals, road systems, invention of railway system, where goods could be transported, expanding population and distribution of people throughout the country • Agricultural revolution: improved farming techniques • Investments • Technological inventions Because Peter explains that those processes make up the arrival of the modern world view characterized by: • Lifestyle changed: slave of the capitalists (factories) • December 8, 2010 Industrial Revolution / Romantic Rebellion • William Blake 1757-1827: poet considered a lunatic at his lifetime • Known for poetry and visual arts Romantic Era: • Women’s revolt • Worker’s strike • Industrial revolution: pollution, and people became statistics and slaves for machines • Rise of the bureaucratic class and the working class • Beliefs became the opposite: natural world is now down at the earth instead of high up • William Wordsworth: Tintern Abbey o Very imaginative and liked to fill • Goths: a tribe, rough people, connections between natural world and dark Cathedrals deemed as romantics. • Arts are not symmetrical like the medieval ones • The sublime: emotion response to the natural world, to something is big like Niagara falls o Bigger than the human, but does not kill us o Art: looking extremely close at a picture  Drawing pictures of zoomed in tree roots • Satan was the angel who fell, and rail against the Gods and created the Pandemonium, stated that Heaven was a bad place filled with bureaucratic and Hell is where all the truth is and connected the demonic • Arrival of the Hudson Bay Company o Bring plants that will survive and send back to England and will be analyze o Garden and remedies being discovered from the plants sent back o For example, go to China and Stole plants and brought them back and created small environments o Charles Darwin: Origin of species: traveled around the world by hitching a ride on ships  Discovered that on different island: similar creatures • Natural world is being exploited • Darwin’s challenge: o There are no fixed species created once and for all o All species came from the same traceable origin back in distant time o Speciation Is due to chance variations in genetic material, and the :kuck of environmental draw” o Therefore: design complexity is not planned: it emerges from the evolutionary interplay o Nature is one more” lost paradise” • Second Industrial Revolution: electromagnetism o Steam to drive a turbine, turbine to generate electricity o Steam engine o Ford assembly line  5 year plan: roads being built for citizens Early Environmentalism • Commons Preservation Society • Theory of parks, and where they came from, and raise management issues: how many people do we let in, what are the boundaries for the park • London Fog-1952: 4000 killed: humans killing self with pollution o Banned coal eventually, o Atomic bomb: unethical ways to solve conflict o DDT What are the characteristics of the Modern world view 1. Emergence of modern science : use of experimental models to identify physical chemical laws; explanation of things by physical laws, focus on explain the details of nature world, all is subject to measurement and laws 2. Emergence of mechanization of the world picture: the assumption of the uniformity of nature= nature and bodies resembled a machine. With mechanization/ industrial revolution 3. The invention of printing and the arrival of the book revolutionized the distribution of knowledge cheap knowledge was now in the hands of any citizens=not any more in the hands of the priests 4. The discovery of the New World and the new empires changed old assumptions about the world, about maps 5. And with all of this = the Emergence of Individualism, the human-centered vision of the world according to his needs, etc. The idea of the individual ability to judge, without masters, to read and think for oneself. 6. The emergence of a paradox central to the modern worldview. On one hand there is a new idea the individual at the centre of things, there “I”, the self as an emerging power in the world. And on the other hand, there is the increasing scientific knowledge suggesting that human beings are not the centre of things 7. The emergence of the modern scepticism, the possibility that none of the world views is absolutely true, the possibility that perhaps no explanation will ever be good enough. The question: what is your scientific proof? Might also be followed by a darker question: How can anyone prove anything for sure? 8. General characteristics / contracts between the two cosmologies. Medieval cosmologies and Modern cosmology. a. Medieval hierarchical: this earlier worldview was organized hierarchically, the higher you go, the more rational, ordered and powerful you become, because getting closer to God b. Modern attempts to parody and satinse the old cosmology. This world view inverts and parodies the old approach because it no longer believes explicitly in the natural right of rulers to rule. This is one of the causes and outcomes of the American and French Revolutions What is Heaven? Medieval: the place everyone wants to be Modern cosmology: the whole idea of the top becomes not the place you want to fo to reach heaven. Heaven in relgion terms does not exist, now heaven the place of infinite space, the abstract cosmos rules over by physical laws= is not anymore the place rules by God. Heaven is blank, inhuman, full of stars that no longer have any relevance to our lives Forces of authority: Medieval: Gods and King Moderns: authorities: governments, kingdoms, churches, governments designed to supress human expressions What is nature: Romantic worldview: movement of artists, philosophers, writers, poets who rebelled against those changes brought about by the emergence of “The Machine” The romantic writers rebelled against the fall of humanity into modernity, into the “hell of cities” called as the “fall of man” by Peter To be modern: politically, through revolutions, see worldwide idea that down is up To overcome this crisis is Nature: as a source of a new regenerative force. Semester 2: January 5, 2011 Rise of Modernism Arrival of the industrial revolution: arrival of coal and steam engine as new energy source Capitalism politics: how to deal with the discovery of new energy source Trade unions, laws with inventions, ordinary citizens, power arose from this Now that there are new technologies in the economic system, capitalism politics basically dictate how to use these methods effectively Question about who are we, in this world of mass production, factories? • Answer: romanticism: we’re all creative person who are not discovered, we have potential to become creative that is not the same as the messed up world as we live in. Poetic journey to places without industries such as ship journeys to the Artic Now that capitalism is taking place and the factories are mass producing products, romanticism has arose and questions about individualism and where one stands in the society arises Darwin’s discovery of species and Natives: bringing back different animals and birds and discovered that there is a whole other world Question: where did all these species come from? Factory where synthetic chemicals were made and waste was dumped into the river: rivers would run different colour each time • New kinds of diseases and intensity of diseases arose such as cancer and tuberculosis from mining When traveling to places without industries were considered as poetic and popular, Charles Darwin was a part of this great journey, he discovered many species of birds and wildlife where he raised the question of where these species came from. He also discovered many diseases and cancers that miners were getting, and how synthetic chemicals caused defects in the human body. Ford assembly line Synthetic research in warfare in a large mass scale: World War I – chlorine gas • German chemical research • Symbolic: ruthless killing and technology used against each other • Answers: Maybe we cannot control the technology and harness its power for good uses World War II: to win war, must destroy modern manufacturing companies such as the bombing of Japan’s civilian and factories in Nagasaki • After war, movement towards leisure time, parks, gardens, hunting e.g. New Forest – Rufus Stone, resort parks • People liked smoke from factories: symbolized money and work and population o London Fog 1952 – 4000 killed: London banned coal fires, environment problems Environmentalism 1 wave: 1880-1940: Conservation/factory legislation 2 wave: 1950-1970: Environmentalism and first environmental legislation 3 wave: 1980-2000: Concerns over the trajectory of modernity/planetary consciousness th 4 wave: Year Unknown: Rethinking/recreating nature and the human being Fabric of life • Extended time and space – “Cosmic Story” • Evolutionary connection to all living things • Cycles of life: chemicals / ecosystems • Gaia: planet as an integrated system • Genetic connection to all living things • Human encroachment made visible Environmental Wounds Wounds 1: the atom bomb: human beings were able to do it: ground zero images • Above ground testing controversy • 1960-1970: people worried about nuclear waste Wounds 2: DDT and other pervasive artificial substances • DDT was persistent: stayed around and sunlight did not break it down so it stayed in the environment • Sprayed it everywhere: on people, rivers, roads • Death rates dropped tremendously • This allowed humans to trace species as DDT was dominant in the species • People who discover environment issue in their own backyard: 1978: Love Canal: Hooker chemical company used canal after the war to dump their waste into o Buried it 1 foot or so and sold it to the city and a school was built over the canal o Cancer rates and people who got sick decided to band together and held meetings to urge the government to take actions (Lois Gibbs) o Eventual evacuation of 800 families in this area Wound 3: Acid rain and the distance threat of large scale industrial disaster • Factories polluted heavily • Earth Day 1970: focus of big industrial polluters: governments shut down a lot of factories and move their smoke stacks and put filters on them • Acid rain could ruin paint on cars and ruin limestone statues • The idea of rain (water) could be a carry of poison threatened the fabric of life: What is trustworthy? • Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania 1979: almost melt down of nuclear plants • Chernobyl 1986: radiation • Greenpeace Wound 4: The Ozone Hole: • Ultraviolet light is leaking through Wound 5: endangered species • Extinctions going at all times, human beings are now very involved in the extinction of species • Loss of species= hole left in the fabric of things • Losing are invertebrates: baiji freshwater dolphin extinct 2002 Wound 6: climate change • Assault on the season • Stopped the talk about the climate change for some reason Wound 7: The emerging redesign of life itself • Human genome project • Controversy, concepts of January 6, 2010 Environmental history 1. Industrial revolution: social political and economic contradictions and disruptions. And who was going to be in control of the new power and the new wealth resulted from the IR. • Three main forces that were part of this new political and economic scenario: o Mass population: emergence of trade unions o Middle class of entrepreneurs: called bourgeoisie o Government: emergence of bureaucracy designed to be equal to everyone 2. The crisis of modernity: The threat of modernity a. Rise of population growth b. Rise of science and technology i. Threatening the own human race ii. Risk society: environmental crisis is part of a complex set of intertwined contradictory processes: globalization, individualization, gender revolution, and underemployment 1. Ironic has technological advancements= bad c. The exploitation of natural resources January12, 2011 The Global Environment • Indicators: but of what? • Economics? • Surveys: e.g. GIS • HANPP / Ecological Footprint Who gets to measure and what/when/where/what for? • Governments, international agencies, corporations, milit
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