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ENVS 1000 Exam Review - Full Year.pdf

29 Pages

Environmental Studies
Course Code
ENVS 1000

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Environmental History IITo the Rise of Cities Sumeria and Egypt which were the cities of middle east that flourished on surpluses had a constant tension between them and resorted to the idea of the King of Gods The different views on godpolytheistic paganism being someone who sees many gods and this can be found in many cultures monotheistic being someone who believes in one god was seen to be developed in the westMonotheistic religions are simple and converge into one source one power one god Western tradition has a hierarchy of gods polytheistic view on godThis was carried out initially by the nomadic tribal people Hebrews who would eventually become Israelites Researchers believe that hebrews were the first tribal people of Assyrian empire new name for the Sumerian empire because of the similarities seen in the Bible towards the Assyrian empire itselfsurvival of a man who takes all animals into a boat and survives etcHebrews eventually settle in the land of Israel and attacked the gods of already existing local people Canaanites Hebrews attempted to place this hierarchical system into a one god system thus they established Judaism Christianity which developed from Judiasm fought against the pagan gods of Rome and Greece IslamMohammed prophet fought against the pagan gods of the Arabian dessertIn the Medterranean the important trading empires were the Crete and Cyprus which mingled the gods of Egypt and Sumeria with other gods and practices Ionian philosophers resided in Ionia questioned about the existence of god Thaleswhat is the world made ofPythagoras numbers and geometries ruled the universe Focused on fundamental physical laws behind the diversity of natural processesThese reasons led dominance of WestJudiacGraecoRoman tradition in the Mediterranean region being the most importantin Mediterranean regionsEnvironmental History IIITowards The Birth of Science And the Abstraction Or Nature Everything in the Christian religion had its own resting place and the most graded things were furthest from the earth which is the center of the universeEpicycles are subcircles that explain the variance between transparent circles of the universe thus explaining the movement of planets The first modern machine was called the verge escapement which made it possible for people to measure time ignoring factors as to where was one what the weather was and what time of the year it wasPerspective lead to changes in how maps are drawn Older maps were centered around Jerusalem whereas new maps were drawn according to longitude and latitudeNicholus Coperniucusbelieved that sun was more important in comparison to earth whereas Galileo believed the stars were important Examining stars under the telescope be reasoned that Jupiter had moons and the sun had spots According to Galileo since the sun wasnt perfect it may have been made of the same materials that all the other planets were made of and operated according to the rules that held the universe together St Francis of Assisi the first environmentalist StFrancis began sorting his faith when he was a teenwhich is when he realized that the poverty jesuslived in and that all Jesus did was live each day like no tomorrow and trust everything will be taken careof if he had faith in his fatherSt Francis was the first Christian saint to study ecology in everyday lifeFrancis became interested in Holy poverty and later on became a follower of Lady Povertytradition of a wandering singer This led him to sing and dance on the streets with many other followers Eventually he ended up with a group of followers who believed to share the same principles as himThe church developed a set of rules which followed the Franciscan way of life rules of life After his deaththe town of Assisi became burdened with large amounts of wealth from thEuropeans everywhere Around the 13 centurythe spiritual Franciscans demanded that Catholic Church get rid of their wealth The church therefore was forced to ewview the current consumption of private property as holy which escalated growth of banking and merchandising Environmental History IVFirst seeds globalization caused the mix of species from different continents and explorers began to dominate the New World North and South America Columbus mission was due to a desperate demand for spices The main single source for these spices were the Spice Islands in Southeast AsiaThese spices travelled from the Islands to India then Egyptthen Italy and then to the rest of EuropethIn the 7 century a merchant named Muhammad founded Islam which later conquered Mediterranean and other countries that were involved in the trade off of spices thIn the 15 centurythe Indian ocean was controlled by the arabs which interrupted spice tradeWithin 30 years the Arab trade system was destroyed and replaced by colonization of AfricaColumbus enslaved the North American tribes due to the inability of natives to oppose well armed troopsMillions of diseases were destroying populations causing a 90 decline in a 100 years which stimulated slave trade
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