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ENVS midterm notess.docx

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York University
Environmental Studies
ENVS 1000
Anita Lam

ENVSmidterminfo4sectionsmultiplechoicedefinitionsincludingkeyfigurespeopleandplacescosmologynitrogentheoryindustrialrevolutionshortanswersnomorethanaparagraphlonganswerpick2questionsoutofthe45aboutapagewhatistheindustrialrevolutionandwhataretheforcesthatmadeitpossibleTheGaiaHypothesisEarthsbiosphereismanipulatedbylifetosustainlifeitselfTheEarthcanbeconsideredhypotheticallyasifitwerealivingbeingNatural systemsThey complexify to capture energy more effectively As they grow more of their energy moves into sustaining rather than growingHumanbased systems artificially simplify and juvenalize to maximize production of single elementVULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCEIVulnerabilityfrom woundthat which is susceptible of injury exposed to damage OEDWhat is it to be vulnerableIs it something specific Kryptonite or something more general systems failureNatural systems degraded systems systems with critical species that are threatened shrinking systems islands systems facing unknown threats to which no defence has been createdSocial systems obvious vulnerabilities defended against eg disease war disaster unobvious disasters cumulative impacts social degradation stupidity cowardice greed etc etcVULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE IIResiliencethe capacity of a system to bounce back from a stress borrowed from engineeringWhat makes a system resilientNatural systems robust simplicity appropriate diversity sizerefuges patchinessSocial systems appropriately flexible strategies access to resources memoryRESILIENCE VS RELIABILITYOursituationobviousproblemsnuclearwarclimatechangeexistingstarvationsetcfoundationalproblemslimitstogrowthreplacingnaturalsystemswithartificialsystemssyntheticlifeascompetitionsystemstoocomplextounderstandormanageshorttermresponsestolongtermproblemsDiamondsreasonscumulativeenvironmentaldamagechangesinoverallenvironmentalconditionsegdroughthostileneighboursdecreasedsupportfromneighboursinabilitytocomeupwithadequateresponsespartlybasedonfalseworldviewnowheretogoENTROPY dont memorize this just get the ideaIn thermodynamics a measure of the disorder of a system In communications theory or probability it is the measure of the uncertainty in a system connected to information Information can be a structure an order The less order the less information you can read off the system Information is a measure of a reduction in that uncertainty it is telling you something not nothingUltimately energy and its other form matter will degrade to a final state of uniformityOne way of summarizing all this is in two laws FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICSEnergy can be neither created nor destroyedSECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICSEnergy spontaneously tends to flow from being concentrated in one place to becoming diffused or dispersed and spread outOr In a closed system entropy always increasesLIFE IS IMPROBABLE IN AN ENTROPIC UNIVERSESolution Decrease planetary entropy by sucking energy from the sun decrease local entropy by sucking energy from chemical structures stored in food fossil fuels or sun energy in the form of wind or solar power or tap into nuclear forcesLIFE IS A SNEAKY WAY OF TEMPORARILY BLOCKING THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS THE MEANING OF LIFE In the sunshinePRODUCERSPLANTS photosynthesizersWater H20Carbon Dioxide C02SunlightSugars Cellulose etcCH20s another set of words for FOOD OXYGENCONSUMERSPEOPLE ANIMALS PLANTS AGAIN ETCWater H20 OYXGEN 02 FOOD CH20sC02 and other waste including waste heatback to the topaliquidoragaswillorganiseitselfintoadissipativestructuretomovedissipateenergylossmorequicklyspeedupentropy
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