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Environmental Studies
ENVS 2200
Stefan Kipfer

Banff: Banff is a Canada‘s first National Park. Discussed by Catriona Sanilocks – Where the Mountain Men met the Lesbian Rangers. It is important to understand Banff‘s place in urban history even though National Parks are designed and perceived as separate from urban life. A tension has remained from its establishment between iconic nature and a domestic nature. It is a romantic park shaped with heterosexual norms in mind, the belief that homosexuality may be urban but is ‗unnatural‘ – does not belong in nature. Banff policing of the park was enforced with heterosexuality in mind, but today various parks are contested spaces – used as cursing spaces for various lesbian/gay subcultures. Stanley Park: is a huge urban park bordering downtown Vancouver. It is an example of what Jordan Stranger refers to as ―municipal colonization.‖ The area traditionally was property of many indigenous tribes; the last of these was the Squamish tribe. In 1888 it was deemed Park Land. In 1923 all the remaining inhabitants were evicted – living indigenous people are replaced by folklore (ex. totem poles) to attract tourists. The city plan of 1928 sanctions and justifies the dispossession of their land for properly and orderly planning – essentially, First Nations have no place in cities. Mont Royal: is a metropolitan park created in 1873 in the city of Montreal. It was designed systematically to produce a contrast between the street grid (which dominated urban street design). Contrast between these ―natural areas‖ and the city. Metropolitan parks are created for various reasons, such as: physical and moral health, mixing of class, to create order, to raise property, and the like. th La Petite Ceinture: is a railway circling central Paris that was built in the mid 19 C to connect other tracks extending to different provinces in France. Today it is abandoned, preserved by indecisions about its future. For some it is a retreat from the city, for others it is their home – homeless culture. About a 1.5 kilometer path along rail circuit presents an excellent case study for understanding the hybrid ecologies emerging in urban post-industrial settings, the rest remains vacant aside from the garbage building up. We see an aesthetic commitment to artifactualizing nature, and excluding marginalized people. Important because we be alert to ways that ecology can be linked to forms of development that deepen social polarization and threaten low- and middle-income neighborhoods and marginalized people. Toronto Official Plan: is a mandate by provincial law adopted in 2002. It is produced by planners and passed by city council. It aims to divide the city into different zones to determine where land use practices (residential, industrial, recreational) can take place. The TOP claims to be a plan for everyone (balance and harmony), although investment is meant to make Toronto a more competitive destination. Consequently, some people/investments are not a high priority for the place (public housing tenants, the poor, low-income areas). This is important to understand the various forces at work in municipal planning, when certain areas are cleaned up they become more attractive to middle class groups. The Junction: Kim Jackson gave a lecture speech on her home neighbourhood The Junction. She was discussing the several phases of gentrification that occurred in The Junction. Originally the area was known as a bohemian area, one that artists would invest much ‗sweat equity‘ into cheap real estate. Deindustrialization led to the decline of the neighbourhood (manufacturing businesses moved out), the area was perceived as needing redevelopment. The area becomes an investment strategy, marginalizing those who cannot or do not want to participate in landscapes of capitalism in market driven societies. Important for us to understand gentrification as a newer process within a lineage of class ad colonial war that takes place through the re-modeling of urban environment. Shanghai: Reason they are believed to acquire and keep status of global city. Large-scale urban change is transforming the area into a ‗globalizing island.‘ Specific kinds of pressure in these cities that are now driving polices to demolish slum in these cities – additional set of procedures to do so. China: state-enforces shift from state- socialism to capitalism. Creation of private property, mass privatization of public housing. Bombay/Mumbai: Neoliberalism in India. An ongoing project of dispossessing farmers, tribal groups, slum dwellers. Trying to get major cities to become the gateways to integrate Mumbai in the global world – Mumbai has been selected to become the financial centre. The dispossession of land to make room for industrial/commercial industries. The suburbanization and marginalization of more than 90% of the population. Massive land conversions to transform large parts of Mumbai to make room for various social spaces that are amore profitable and connected to the global city. Jane Jacobs: Jacobs is an urban studies activist well known for organizing grassroots efforts to protect existing neighborhoods from "slum clearance"—and particularly for her opposition to Robert Moses in his plans to overhaul her neighborhood. Her influential book The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) argued that urban renewal did not respect the needs of most city-dwellers. Jacobs led ant modern planners against Robert Moses proposal to build the Lower Manhattan Expressway. Leading critic of modern planning. The project finally collapsed in 1971. Important to understand how politics and urban renewal gel and effect everyday social relations in search of ‗the common good.‘ Henri Lefebvre: is best known for pioneering the critique of everyday life in the city and for introducing the concepts of the right to the city in his 1968 book. He wrote this book in an uprising context, trying to make sense of what was happing in Paris at the time. At this time suburbanites (immigrant workers) took over various buildings and went on a general strike, all of which converged into downtown Paris and battles with police. People suspended everyday life to form new kinds of human r/s with each other. This is important b/c the distinction in which Lefebvre uses the term in a revolutionary way and the way in that term is almost ‗fashionable‘ these days. Urban Renewal: is a process of land renewal under the rubric of reconstruction. The redevelopment of large sections of New York by Robert Moses throughout the mid 1900s was a notable and prominent example of urban redevelopment. Moses directed the construction of new bridges, highways, housing projects, and so on. Moses was a controversial figure, both for his single-minded zeal and for its social impact on New York City. Early urban renewal projects were generally focused on slum clearance. Later examples promoted mass suburbanization (the sitcom suburbs). Flyover: Flyovers in Mumbai are very different than expressways in North America. Flyovers are elevated road highways (and elevate pedestrian walkways – skywalks) across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region in India. Both have become highly visible features of Mumbai‘s recent rapid urbanization. In his article Andrew Harris describes how much of Mumbai is marginalized as infrastructure favours the automobile and most people cannot afford a car. Historic Preservation: A typical urban social movement in modern urban life develops because of problems created by urban development and growth orientation. Goal of these movements is to stop/moderate urban development strategies. Historic preservation movements fall into this category, for example, the movement to preserve the Oak Ridges Moraine. Politics: The activities associated with the governance of an area. The exercise of power through the state and in everyday social relations of class, gender, ‗race‘, sexuality. Politics is about power in all parts of society, not just in government. The dynamics of conflict and compromise between different interests and visions on what a city should be all about. E.g., the unequal impacts of Moses‘ projects – social impacts he had on the grad scale are a form of politics. Politics and planning help to create urban landscapes that connect human and non-human lives: they are not separate form ‗nature.‘ Landscape Ecology: Ann Zimmerman defines them as a new generation of natural science landscape architects – professionals whose understanding of natural environments and desire for ecological sustainability compel them to design and construct built environments in ways that protect and promote native vegetation and wildlife. They help us to understand change in ecosystems and implications of human activities for that change. Romantic Conceptions of Nature: have been adapted from British colonial culture, people were taught to see ‗nature‘ only as a pristine form untouched by human labour. As a feminized counterpart to man and industry. This nature is to be controlled even as it is idolized; romantic conceptions of nature have shaped many urban forms. For example, many urban landscapes are filled with many ‗symbols of nature,‘ such as, low-density green spaces. Also, romantic urban parks are designed in a way for us to believe these spots are ‗natural‘ and picturesque enclaves as an escape from the city National Parks: Catriona Sandilands describes how the tourist values of National Parks lie in their status as post- Confederation cultural icons, a place to visit to discover the heart of the country. In the late 1800s they were seen as a place where wilderness has been conquered. NPs are in large part a piece of urban history, even though most are designed as separate from the city – natural. For example, Banff (1887) is an example of a National Park in Canada. Planners designed National Parks for the purposes of conservation and preservation, e.g., conservation of tourism, population health, and recreation, along with preservation of enclosed ‗nature.‘ She also argues that National Parks are sites of gendered, racialized, and sexualized negotiations among national discourses, thus ‗preserving‘ national parks as a site of Canadian heritage can be very controversial. Landscape Architecture: Up until the early 1800s the history of landscape architecture was largely about planning garden design for royal properties, government buildings, and the like. For instance, one of the properties planned was the Palace of Versailles in France outside Paris. A lot of early planners were landscape architects – worked on parks and urban landscapes. The sole purpose of landscape architecture was to regulate social behaviors. Designing parks and park systems (work done by landscape architects) are key 19 C precursors of modern urban-regional planning. Ecological Restoration: Jennifer Foster describes ecological restoration as efforts undertaken to reclaim old industrial, port, and railway lands and turn them into some sort of ‗park.‘ Some official purposes for pursuing this was climate regulation, wildlife corridors, valorizing property, discouraging squatting and public space as regulator, and tourism. Conflicts over the use and benefits of ecological restoration. Ecological restoration becomes a key force in planning or creating parks in a context of deindustrialization / post-Fordism since the 1970s. Heternormativity: is used by Blunt and Wills in their paper to describe how sexual practices and moralities based on heterosexuality become the norm in Euro-American modernity and traditions. Most public space is shaped to serve the purposes of those whose sexual orientations are heterosexual. An example of heternormativity can bee seen in neighbourhood design for reproductive purposes - gravitate to the idea that everyone in the neighbourhood is going to ‗settle down and have kids‘ (neighbourhood assumes sexuality revolves around production – e.g., playgrounds Bathhouse riot: was discussed in the film Pride and Resistance that we watch in class. The Bathhouse riot refers to the police violence in which they used liquor law infringements to raid bathhouses. Homosexual bathhouses are commercial bathhouses (or saunas) where homosexual couples can have sex if they so please to do. In the early 1980s 4 bathhouses were raided in Toronto, this resulted in the arrest of almost 300 men and extreme backlash from the gay and lesbian community. Stonewall riot: The Stonewall riots in New York City were a series of demonstrations and riots by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place at Stonewall Inn. The riots are widely considered to be the single most important even leading to the gay liberation movement and social movement in the United States. Through this queer cultures become visible and political, 2 main goals were rights for minorities and to liberation against restrictive norms. Regional Planning: is the regulation of uneven regional economic development within regions/nations. For instance, various countries around the world developed strategies to deal with interregional imbalances. A narrow definition would be the regulation of land use and where people do things & the regulating of the built environment of development simply at the scale of a region as a whole. A broad definition would be the linking of the urban to economic, social, and environmental planning in urban regions. Planning the non-human (importance of nature) environment along with the urban. Relates to broader theme that regional planning in real life is full on contradictions, planning can be a contest of alternative visions & fierce public debate. Green Belt: The Green Belt and the Greater Golden Horseshoe is one method used for development control, it is a belt of recreational parks, farmland or uncultivated land surround a town or city. In Ontario‘s Official Growth Plan the Green Belt is an attempt to concentrate planning in a number of Growth Centres (Growth Plan). Non of these are new towns, they are existing nodes where development is concentrates through municipal regulations (allowed to exceed). Relates to broader theme that regional planning in real life is full on contradictions, planning can be a contest of alternative visions & fierce public debate. The Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe: The Green Belt and the Greater Golden Horseshoe is one method used for development control, it is a belt of recreational parks, farmland or uncultivated land surround a town or city. In Ontario‘s Official Growth Plan the Green Belt is an attempt to concentrate planning in a number of Growth Centres (Growth Plan). Non of these are new towns, they are existing nodes where development is concentrates through municipal regulations (allowed to exceed). Relates to broader theme that regional planning in real life is full on contradictions, planning can be a contest of alternative visions & fierce public debate. CIAM: was an organization founded in 1928 that held a series of events arranged around the world by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of Modernism. They believed architecture should be used as an economic political too to improve the world through the ‗universal truths‘ of buildings design. Arguably the organization is most known for CIAM 4: The Functional City congress in which they shaped the direction of modernism until the early 70s with their notion of the ‗good‘ city – the design was somewhat similar to the tower in the park notion. Social Efficiency: Social efficiency contrasts with the business-orientated efficient and became the key goal of urban-regional planning in North America in the 1920s (one should measure the effectiveness of something if it reduces the work for society reduces the resources used). Early thinking of modernist planning was to approach planning as whole – universal truths that lead to better lifestyles. The Compact City: is an alternative strand in regional planning as opposed to the garden suburbs. The Compact City is an alternative strand where the central focus of regional planning is to affirm and extend the existing city centres. A concept of regional planning that aims to extend the existing city centre instead of planning against, away from it (garden city ideal/urban sprawl). 19 century Amsterdam the consensus was to extend the existing street grid but build public housing to extend the central city, emphasizing importance of building upon EXISTING urban developments. This is now seen as vital for green urbanism and truly urban vision of sustainability. Gentrification: According to Kim, began to make an impact from 1970 forward. It is a process that typically involves to displacement of lower income residents of a neighbourhood by an invasion of middle and upper class urban gentry –considered the equivalent of urban professionals (work in capitalism service industries). This uneven development and exploitation of the ‗rent-gap‘ displaces the working-class and impoverished community. The deindustrialization of the urban West facilitates the process. Importants to understand the how global and neoliberal processes are linked to the ongoing and in some ways invisible processes of gentrification, companied with the baggage of social polarization. (We learn the birth of Gentrification – British previous ruling class: gentry) Employment Lands: Employment lands are zoned industrial or similar purposes in planning instruments. They are generally lower density employment areas containing concentrations of businesses involved in: manufacturing, services and repair trades, and urban services and utilities. Strong population growth typically leads to increased pressure on planners to rezone existing employment land for housing and other purposes. An example of Employment lands being discussed in recent politics is Rob Fords revisal draft of the Toronto‘s Official Plan, changes that would stimulate employment by created more near rapid transit and keeping the existing areas zoned for employment uses only. Modal Split: is a traffic term that describes the percentage of travelers using a particular type of transportation (non- motorized, public, and private transport). The term is often used when analyzing the sustainability of transport within a city or region. In our lecture on Regional Planning we learned that expanding transit supply is simply no enough to shift the modal split from private to public transit, it is simply one piece of the puzzle in truly changing the modal split. Sustainability: In our Regional Planning 2 lecture we learned that sustainability in its current context is similar to planning a utopia, its vision is a future that is holistic and harmonious and where the relationship between ‗economy‘, equality, and environment is a positive sum game (everyone wins). It suggests that we can do all these good things and not change much politically. In a sense sustainability is the newest example of green urbanism. The paradigm of sustainability is that its approaches tend to be along the ‗light green‘ as opposed to deeper changes in capitalistic concerns (Western context values are inherently problematic for the environment. This is important because we need to recognize that planners must become political and take sides instead of pretending they stand above conflict (pretending they can promote everything at the same time). Property conflict: In his reading on urban experience Simon Parker describes the contradictions between the economy, environment, and equality. He alters us to a very necessary principle. A general and honest approach to sustainability tries to grapple with 3 circles, one of them being property conflict. Property conflict describes the relationship between quality and economy. Principally, capitalist growth and economic growth tend to increase inequality. Thus, advocating we can achieve sustainability (have the cake and eat it too) without implementing deep reforms (impacting capitalism) is nothing more than a pipedream. State: The state refers to the institutions of power, concentrations of authority and the means of violence (in unequal societies). You cannot find states in all societies in the world, requires certain context – the notion of the state means more than government (elected parts), for example the police and army. An example of a state would be a Liberal Democratic State, meaning various citizenship and individuality rights and collective rights (idea that groups of people can form their own rights aside from just the State). Urban Growth Machines: this is a term used first by urban sociologist Molotch who studied the real estate interest of those whose properties gain value as growth occurs. Municipalities are basically growth machines that produce wealth for those in power by encouraging real estate development. A common interest in growth is one of the few issues that unties and politically mobilizes those in the upper social hierarchy. Typically, urban social movements develop due to backlash against growth development orientation (or urban ‗growth machines‘). Neoliberalism: refers to a shift from the old urban polit
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