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ENVS 2200 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Tract Housing, Mortgage Insurance, Informal Sector

Environmental Studies
Course Code
ENVS 2200
Stefan Kipfer
Study Guide

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Segregation – Nightingale defines segregation as racial control, or the separation of
multiple groups. It can be seen as racial, geographical, religious, sex and residential
Significance: Play into the theme of class conflict as well as how urban settings have
been developed in order to keep racial groups separated
Example: From Nightingale reading, white people in Baltimore wanted to extend
segregation to the city’s residential neighbourhood. Mayor Barry Mahool signed the
segregation ordinance into law, dividing every street into “white blocks” and “coloured
blocks”. Set a $100 fine and up to a year in jail for anyone who moved to a block set
aside for another race
Racism- is generally defined as actions, practices, or beliefs that consider the human
species to be divided intoraces with shared traits, abilities, or qualities, such as
personality, intellect, morality, or other cultural behavioral characteristics, and especially
the belief that races can be ranked as inherently superior or inferior to others, or that
members of different races should be treated differently. Race is a paradox; it is a
biological illusion but is persistent in social reality. It is not human nature; it is a product
of history and human practice. Individual or social phenomenon
Significance: If we understand racism, we can understand the idea behind segregation.
White people believed they were inherently superior to any other race, therefore believed
they should live separately from them. Also crucial in understanding class relations.
Ranking racial groups into a hierarchy
Example: The Apartheid in South Africa, which is mentioned in the Nightingale reading.
This was the most radical form of urban racial segregation enforced by National Party
- Exoticism in Hamilton (putting indian head on monument)
- Ghettoization in Baltimore
Porosity - or void fraction is a measure of the empty spaces in a material, and is a
fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as
a percentage between 0 and 100%
Significance: metaphor for fluid transitions between work and leisure, formal and
informal economy, street and domestic space, public and private life
Example: Professor talks about the time (clock) of capitalism in lecture 9. Time is
measurable and divisible, a repetitive sequence of inter-changeable instants
Sitcom Suburb – Important reference point in mass culture. Suburbs are now
standardized, planned product of integrated development industry. The state subsidized
oil, water and sewage, mortgage insurance and roads. Elements of the picturesque
enclave are recycled, and households become machines for consumption. Sitcoms and
films thrived because they were about model families in new communities where every
family ad a house, a car and a television. Television reached all houses, and because of
this, many saw the tract house as an emblem of belonging and upward mobility
Significance: Families moved into a culture of consumption and became dependent on
cars. It is accurate to say that the sitcom suburbs complicated class relationships rather
than erasing them. Race and gender were set against class in a painful way. The long-term
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