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ENVS 2200 Study Guide - Final Guide: Smog, Deindustrialization


Department
Environmental Studies
Course Code
ENVS 2200
Professor
Stefan Kipfer
Study Guide
Final

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4. Sprawl is a term to describe a particular type of urban development in current urban
regions. However, sprawl emerged from much longer histories of suburbanization.
Discuss with respect to at least two different periods.
Sprawl can be decribed a the urban region with low density development that is auto-
dependent and has a mono-functional (opposite of mixed use) way of life with little or no
public space. Sprawl emerged during the periods of the industrial revolution and the post-
war capitalism which gave rise to social, spatial and economic restructuring of global
cities.
Industrial Revolution (1840s)
Around the 1840s, it was during the industrial revolution when Manchester had
become “the workshop of the world” and the leading industrial-global city by
supplying half the world’s cotton.
When steam and coal became important, there was high labor demand in works
like mechanical power, railroad, iron smelting and loom.
migrant labor population increased in urban cities and met these demands with
high concentrations.
Engels states in his reading that in the 1860s new labor aristocracies were formed,
the working class became more segmented due to religion, political affiliations,
sports clubs, etc.
This gave rise to strong residential segregation with ethnic inequality as the
backdrop.
By the 1890s, the ‘bourgoisie’ or upper class found ways to move to the edges of
the urban core and live in a more less-polluted, tranquil, green space of high status
and standards called ‘picturesque enclaves.
Recent garden cities are private developments, gated communities built by private
interests for private gains.
New professionals and merchants want city facilities, goods and opportunities but
want to avoid crowds, noise and costly and unsanitary housing
Wealthy searching for better housing and better transportation (afford
cars), promoted by real estate developers driving force of
suburbanization, resulting in sprawl of detached and privately owned
homes. Citybuilding was planned and plotted called controlled suburban
sprawls. Speculative buildings arrived before available jobs, usually was
while suburbs but then when labour was needed, it became racially mixed
suburbs.
Suburb = bourgeois utopia of low density, no commerce of industry and low-
working class
Suburb were socially middle-upper class dominated and the urban city was mostly
wage-labor working class dominanted.
-more about bad working class conditions
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