13 Pages

Earth, Space Science and Engineering
Course Code
ESSE 1010
Gary Jarvis

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NameANSWERSLab Session Student 58 MARKS IN TOTALYORK UNIVERSITYDEPARTMENT OF EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCEENGINEERINGFall 2010EATS 1010 30Laboratory Exercise 4PLATE TECTONICS This lab is divided into three parts each dealing with a different aspect of plate tectonics Read the lab over beforehand and bring a pencil metric ruler and either your textbook or Allow yourself about one hour of time for each exerciseyour class notes to the laboratoryInstructions are given for each partFollow the procedures as outlined and fill in your answers to all the questions on the work sheets providedbefore the end of the sessionHand in your completed lab Be sure your name is on the front page and also on each of your answer sheets in case some of the pages come apart12 MARKSPART 1 ISLAND ARCOCEAN TRENCH EARTHQUAKESIntroductionIn the western and northern Pacific Ocean there are many arcshaped groups of islandsThe Aleutians the Marianas Japan and Indonesia are all examplesThere are also island arcs in the Caribbean and South AtlanticIsland arcs have two important characteristics 1 they all have deep ocean trenches nearby and 2 they are areas of volcanism and intense earthquake activityThe location in the Earth where an earthquake occurs is called its focusGeophysicists have discovered that most of the worlds intermediate and deepfocus earthquakes below 100 km occur near island arctrench systemsFor many years there was great curiosity about the unusual character of island arcsThere was no explanation for them prior to the Theory of Plate TectonicsIt proposed that if oceanic plates are created at a midocean ridge there must be some place where the far ends of the plates dive back down into the mantleThis occurs in the vicinity of island arcs producing the trench as well as volcanic and earthquake activityEarthquake studies in such regions provide evidence of subduction of the diving plateObjectiveIn this exercise you will1 plot and interpret an earthquake focus profile and2 explain the seismic characteristics of a subduction zoneProcedure1The table below lists the locations of earthquakes that have occurred in the Marianas Trench areaPlot the location of each on the Earthquake Focus Profile provided as page 4 2 Study your earthquake focus profile and answer the questions on page 3 in the spaces providedEarthquakes of the Marianas Trench Area HorizontalHorizontal HorizontalDepth km Distance fromDepth km Distance from Depth km Distance fromTrench kmTrench km Trench km01621626451645623225455050005025026458045007230036058046409632168350364600480350400600508661328316838340860052483184416432624508116232448448624524116248472416650532472432667548150200500450150260200216500458200248516432
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