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Test #1 Review.docx

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FILM 2401
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs

1 Test #1 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ON TEST DAYS) - 90 minute in class test - 3 topics on the board [Compare the following… (is how it will be stated)] - Pick 1 and write a short essay / 4-6 pages double space in text booklet - Incorporate the readings and examples from film, lecture, etc (NO NOTES - CLOSED BOOK) - chapters 1-6 textbook, 3 film reader readings, none on bordwell, TV reader (not chapter 1) second reader - Lecture 1: early american film industry (how/why it developed), film industry in general and aspects of development, compare films - Scientific impulse as well as industrialization capitalism, urbanization and need for cheap entertainment for working class led to film industry - Working class was primary audience for first 15 year - Edward muybridge (1830-1904) - horse in motion / do all feet leave ground - Tomas alva edison (1847-1931): kinetoscope (only 1 person at a time), established MPPC (motion picture patent company) - D.W. Griffith directed 50 films between 1908-1913, 10-20 minutes for MPPC - Editing still used today, ex.// corner in the wheat - Began making films an hour length in 1913 - Auguste and louis lumiere: first exhibition of projected motion pictures (1895) - documentary style - Great train robbery: many camera angels, colour each frame, many extras, dramatic acting - 1906 sanfrancisco earthquake: like documentary - Black hand: gangster with inter titles - Arrival of immigrants from south eastern Europe all understand language of silent film - Early exhibition was amusement parks, empty store fronts (nickelodeons) - Early films began as documentary tradition and 1 minute in length - MPPC 1908-1915 - motion picture patents company aka edison trust - Dissolved in 1915 by federal courts in violation of sherman anti-trust act - attempts to unionize continue until all unionized in 1941 in NY - Move to west coast/hollywood - Production organization around: shooting, script, stars, genres - Genres as a way of organizing itself and audience 2 - The star system: companies bid over stars - US as #1 filmmaking country in the world at the end of ww1 because - War didnt stop their production of movies - Large internal market (big population in US) - Silent film had no linguistic barrier - Lecture 2: Silent film analyze - 1919 DW Griffith, Charlie Chapline, Mary Pickford create United Artists to keep artistic control - Made hollywood attempts to unionize american film workers 1907-1941, first were studio bosses - Differences in wages dependent upon role in production - Type of labour were: creative talent, skilled professionals, studio technicians and craftsman - Will hays: headed MPPDA (motion picture producers and distributor association 1922), commissioner of hollywood and dealt with censorship (owners of major movie studios) - Academy of motion picture arts and science 1927 designed forestal unionization of creative talent and skilled professional - Workers in hollywood as their spokespersons - Companies began showing their movies at their theatres and higher prices if wanna see it first - Expressionist films 1919-1926 germany prevailed - Americans copy german style to produce film as art - Tim Burton - Silent: exaggeration, brighter scene = happier, car noises, dream scenes/hallucinations - Block booking: make distributors buy a number of companies films, even if just wanted 1 - Lecture 3: Western genre (cultural products and myth) - Hollywood as a genre system & Star system - Genre as a form of production differentiation, system of calcification, social transgression of confirming social values - Genre movies are commercial movies / tell familiar stories with familiar characters and situations - Genre films reproduce relationships of class, race, gender in society - Westerns set between 1865-1900 between Mississippi river and pacific when civil war and slavery ended - Root of western genre concerned with mythologization of american nation from settlement of new world, rise of industrialism (and class conflict) and development of global empire during cold war 3 - Movement from atlantic to pacific - Displacement and resettlement of indigenous people - Civilization vs lawless frontier - Growth of united states as a nation is synonymous with colonization of continent - - Imagined community/nation ideal - Push of american ideal of civilization, value, family, christian values - Lecture 4: Development of sound - revolution of south and change genre, musical - Impact of sound: - Impact capital costs (film exhibition to purchase equipment for exhibiting sound) - More concentrated ownership in the industry - Temp. Decline in foreign films - Rise of new genres and decline of some old - Loss of musician jobs, increase in writers and sound technicians - movie industry turns control to a few companies The big 5: (WMPRF) The little 3: (UCU) Poverty row (production only) Warner brothers United artists Grand national Metro-goldwyn-mayer (MGM) Columbia Mascot Paramount Universal Producers releasing corporation Radio keith orpheum Monogram - - When big 8 couldn't produce enough films, property row filled gap - Introduction of sound in 1927 jazz singer - 1933 americans settled on a system of subtitling to get movies across to non english audiences - Introduces double features & b pictures (new talent) - Job losses (screen writers and musicians), depression, big 8 move in, white dominance 4 - Production located on west and decision making transferred there to keep movie companies afloat - musicals incorporate aspects of popular culture and put sound / dance to everyday activities - Backstage musical: putting on a show, allegories about work and class in america (42nd street) - Hays code: high quality and budget, regulate higher sales, certificate for sales - 1924 “the formula” to ensure only right kinds of films are shown - 1933/1934 it becomes mandatory with a seal - production code administration (PCA) will hays 1934-1966: - Solution to censorship debate ran by Joseph breen - Form of industry self censorship - List of dos/donts ( sex, violence and gangster denied) [general principles (moral vision) vs particular applications (specifically forbidden material)] - PCA holds power to chose what is shown and not based on script and final viewing and given final seal to be shown at theatres owned by MPPDA - Dont want people feeling sympathy or villain or reproducing illegal acts - 1950 relax rules due to expansion of TV and their moral rules - Lecture 5: US self censorship, broadcasting policy in radio & tv, case study - Radio started as wireless telegraphy - Used by military before and during WW1 to allow ships to communicate with other ships - Amateur commercial broadcasters compete for airwaves in 1920 until congress decided who has rights - Radio goes from 2 way to 1 way - Sell air time to advertisers and programming to people - Government needs to regulate things like airwaves to keep people in place - freedom to listen but not to speak - Religious and educational programs not allowed - Radio geared as entertainment and possibility (mass media) - Progressivism: grassroots reform movement with aspirations of farmer immigrants an industrialists as well as middle class member threatened by corruption (capitalism) and immorality of changing social systems. Too much individualism and freedom threatened society - Progressivist ideology: power of corruption over society and other was a fear that individuals potentially disrupt society and could get ahold of airwaves - Middle class shift from rural, agriculture to industrial urban big government 5 - Radio was intended to be the voice for the dominate values in american culture as those values were understood by progressive and middle class americans - Corporations, state and middle class are all involved - Radio act of 1927: (progressivism) idea that government should regulate behaviour of individuals and institutions such as corporations - Radio Act 1927: regulated broadcasting as a mass medium; filtering content and stamp on who could/couldn't talk - Progressives focuses on freedom and how to regulate, c
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