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Film Test #2 Review .docx

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York University
FILM 2401
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs

Film Test #2 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ) 1 - Lecture 6: WWII and unique relationship between US department & hollywood film industry—stay on with war effort (news reel film, military itself in film, sahara) • World war 2 began on sept 1 1939, germany invaded poland • US public had no interest in getting involved in another european conflict • US entered ww2 after bombing of pearl harbour on December 7, 1941 declared war on japan and its ally, germany • once war starts, economy changes • basically no unemployment advisory body of individuals (some in the media industry) tried to help hollywood make pro-war films- OWI • • Office of war information jun1942-sept1945 help war effort & assist media to spread message supporting war • bureau of motion pictures (BMP) tried to influence hollywood to make films to support the war effort & portray US in a positive light • didn't want to show negative impacts of the war • combat films of ww2 • male group - life and death tasks • teamwork and individuals heroics • professionalism and stoicism • outsiders threaten group outsiders win admission to group • • films displayed: mix nationalities, religions • 1930s competing for power over the pacific • Next 80 years japan formed itself into the most formable economic and military power in Asia and was now threatening its main imperial rival in the region, US • Roosevelt overmen also did not want to create kind of crude propaganda the nazis had already become known for • war ended in 1945 • Case Study: The Office of War Information (OWI) • Roosevelt • Operated from June 13, 1942 to sept 1945 and headed by radio commentator elmer davis • Job to assist media in spreading message about supporting war • Influence hollywood to make films to support war effort & make films that portrayed US in a positive light • Films of patriotic morale boosting: • themes and messages about the american way of life • nature of the enemy and the allies • civilian responsibility not be home and to be fighting forces themselves • Neither OWI or BMP (creating these movies) had the power to stop films from being made or shown Film Test #2 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ) 2 • exercised moral persuasion and used it to keep filmmakers from doing anything non patriotic • Second half of the war, they were reading scripts before they went into production and suggesting changes to improve the picture in their minds • The Manual for production of films: • Will this help win the war • What info does it clarify, dramatize or interpret • Is it an escape picture Does it use war as basis for profitable picture • • Is it repetitive to ideas already instilled • Does the picture tell the truth? • Film • Sahara (1943) • compassionate americans • colour blind inclusionists • like stagecoach, begin journey, gather group of ppl, when arrive the heroes are looked at in a better light well & don't run out of ammunition is a miracle • • blacks visible, but through a racist perspective • italians: loyal and had connections to americans • french: nazi victim so personal grudge, part of the french resistance (So not a nazi collaborate) • british: partial to their homeland (patriotic) • german trying to control italian • american are inclusionists whereas germans are discriminatory • seudinieze soldier: only one wife, father and grandfather went to war (similar to americans) - Lecture 7: early american television - sitcom drama - popular (i love lucy, leave it to beaver, simpsons) themes in american television history • • industry developed by the private sector • early television industry had limited competition- only 2 companies that dominant (NBC, CBS) • commercial entertainment over educational uses • tv put on hold until war is over • tv originally very expensive - only elite can afford personal set (equivalent of $1000s) • theatrical drama shows • tvs at bars Film Test #2 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ) 3 • after ww2 as price goes down, programs begin to vary — tv takes off so does economy and consumerism till 70s • television news slow at first and then revs up • situation comedy pop. on radio & moved on tv as success - desilu company - went tobacco company to pitch idea • 40s - daily trials and tribulations of american families and workplace in humorous perspective featured ethnic working class families (1949-1956) - i love lucy • • shift away from working class urban audiences towards suburban family sitcoms of white middle class families for consumerist utopia promised by advertisers (1950-1960) - Leave it to beaver highest ratings - i love lucy • americans in suburbs - becomes more middle class white protestan families • in real life many women continued to work • blurred lines of public and private watch TV in kitchen - open concept kitchen—-put tv so can multi-task (band-aid solution) • • unattractive for women to view tv — unproductive • men seeing tv — calm and relaxed — male passivity • cant make equality • women supposed to be object of desire • Case Study: The Cold War 1946-1947 • emergence of new kind of imperialism, US and USSR replacing the european powers as the major imperialists powers in the world • soviet union has a stronger army • US was dominate economic power - biggest economy, biggest industrial capacity, most military power • US created military alliance (north american treaty alliance) NATO in 1949 to defend and protect its interests USSR did same in 1955 with Warsaw Pact • • attempts by soviet to find allies - trying to win allies and friends because their empower on the line • afraid of full contact bc stock pile of nuclear arms (arms race) • spy genre takes off • phases of the cold war: 1947-1962 (phase 1) 1962-1979 (period of detente) 1979-1991 (phase 2) (convince each other neither side could prevail in nuclear confrontation) nuclear stand off over learn to live with each other (2 US tried to undermine Afghanistan (USSR allie) cuba superpowers) government by supplying muslim fundamentalists increasing friendlier relations to destabilize the government and the Russians would invade - they do russians deployed treaties to limit nuclear weapons, trying to bankrupt soviet union - they do Film Test #2 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ) 4 1947-1962 (phase 1) 1962-1979 (period of detente) 1979-1991 (convince each other neither side could (phase 2) prevail in nuclear confrontation) bombs to cuba remove financial burdens, setting limits on testing of weapons and cuban missal crisis number of warheads each side had second cold war: renewed arms race & build up of (treaty of arms limitations) weapons US became power of the world • • Films • I Love Lucy - The Audition (1951) • inner cities — apartment in manhattan (higher class) • ethnic and working classes • mention of sponsor - tobacco • ricky - patriarchal ideal (dominate ideology) lucy wanted to work like ricky • • rigid binaries of race and gender roles • Leave it To Beaver - Water anyone? (1957) • ideal childhood in suburbs • suburban white family of middle class status • gender binary • admiral / desirable family but not always relatable/realistic/real • Simpsons (1989) americanizing world • • satires american dream - tool for speaking back • example of non typical american media • lower classes • family comes together in the end, resolution • relatable - Lecture 8: western after ww2 in film/tv - relation to cold war & relation to outer aspects of american society&notions of property/family (gun smoke, bananza & big valley 1960s) western film genre changes • • ww2 began to change relationship between heroes of the frontier and natives who they fought Film Test #2 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ) 5 • created awkwardness around issues of history and treatment of natives by whites • early westerns: natives vs whites/ savage vs civilized • this upset US who wanted to send world message about stopping racist policies of enemies (japan and Germany) • US government tries to get nation to support the war by saying they're fighting against racist nations • western films (1946-1962) • impact of ww2 and cold war on westerns • the underdeveloped third world is like the old west—needs to be conquered and tamed the US and USSR compete to bring the benefits of their civilization to this new frontier • • then western to permeant decline - late 1960s less westerns • increasingly urban society became largely uninterested in stories about rural past • rebirth of gangster films (problems of urban life) • baby bombers in 50s and 60s interested in scifi and horror • western audience migrated to TV • united artists goes bankrupt and merge • recycle b westerns • Case Study: The Cold War and Television Western • western took off immediately after tv took off after ww2 • b westerns and serials made in hollywood during 1930s and 40s became a regular staple on tv in its early days • Films • gunsmoke 1955-1975 (19 seasons) s1ep1 bonanza 1959-1973 - s1ep20 • • property westerns: protagonists are wealthy land owners (cartwright family) • attempts to protect wealth and land • maltreatment of chinese immigrants • analogy to the cold war • ties into the antiracist image the media is embracing • civil rights movement 60s • the big valley s1ep1 • emergence of feminism - female roles - Lecture 9: break up of hollywood film system - hollywoods decline & affects, the breakdown of the old hollywood film studio & rise of offshore productions & studio used for tv. rise of americas imperial traditions - (ugly american) - cold war Film Test #2 Review - 20% (NO TUTORIAL ) 6 • 1946 peek of hollywood films, 1956 falls by 50%—tried to ignore it but wanted to then get it back • reasons for the decline of the studio system:
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