1 What‟s the difference between space and place?
Every place is a space but not every space is considered a place. Space is a very general term and pretty
much anywhere you can think of is considered a space, but what does it take for something to be
considered a place? The thing about space and place is that it depends on your own perceptions and can
be different from person to person. A place is a location, whether it is inside a specific space or the space
itself, that is vested with emotion and meaning. A place can be almost anywhere. As long as the location
has a meaning to one person, it will be considered a place. An example would be a bus stop. To
everyone else in the world it could be just a bus stop but to one person that spot could be a home. A
space can be anything from a very general location to a very specific spot. Also, a space doesn’t
necessarily have meaning to an individual like a place does. For example, If a person was on their way to
their destination, the destination would be considered a place because it has meaning to the individual.
However, on the way there, the individual may pass maybe other locations that don’t have any significant
meaning to the person. These locations would be considered spaces.
2 What is the defining component of globalization?
-interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, political,
environmental, and cultural change.
Economic-> open market, freed trade and investments across the globe allow more people to share in
the prosperity of a growing world economy.
Political-> globalization influences different countries with democracy and human rights. Neoliberal
policies to promote open markets and free trades
Environmental-> Oil spills. Pollution as a result of globalization
cultural change-> Globalization brings different products to countries which make lives easier and change
their every day lives.
3 Give an example of how global and local „scales‟ are interdependent.
-on page 49 the 3rd point down.
-examples can be stuff like SARS, HIV, fashion. The way they spread and how people react to it.
-various levels of scales (local regional, national, global.)
-First law of geography is that everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related
than distant things. (page 49)
-levels are all linked and processes operating at one scale can have a significant effect on other scales.
-not always negative. The slogan “think global, act local” is scale at work
-things such as fashion trends can start as an expansion diffusion, to a hierarchical diffusion and back to
an expansion diffusion. (from a city, spreading to major cities across the world and then to smaller
communities within the countries.)
4 Define „chorology‟ and the importance of a „chorological view‟ to Geography.
-Chorology, also known as regional geography, is the study and description of regions
- Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as natural elements, human
elements, and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions.
- how is the view of regions important to geography?
- Understanding regions is important because processes that occur at a regional scale are critical factors in shaping the well-being of people and communities within the regional boundaries, as well as the
sustainability of associated biological and physical systems.
- The regional geography paradigm has had an impact on many other geographical sciences, including
economic geography and geomorphology
6 What are the criticisms of the doctrine of environmental determinism?
-Environmental determinism: how environments are linked to people’s behavior.
-people in the south are less advanced due to the warm “lazy” weather.
Environmental determinism is a concept that argues that different cultures and societies have developed
due to environmental, climatic, and geographical factors alone.
idea suggests that the area’s environmental characteristics have psychological impacts on its population,
and those psychological attitudes define the whole population and how they survive.
7 What is meant by the term ecumene and where is it in Canada?
-Ecumene is the total habitable area of a country. Since it depends on technology, the ecumene of a
country varies over time.
-In Canada the ecumene is mostly located close to the border of the US.
The ecumene in Canada is very small when compared to the size of the country.
8 Describe the basic elements of the North Atlantic Triangle.
- Trade routes between Europe, North America, carribean and Africa.
- Salt was the most important trade coming from Europe and NA
- Slave trade from Africa to the us was the base of the triangle
- This was globalization in the making.
9 Does Canada have “too much geography”? Discuss.
-Large amounts of land but with very little population in comparison.
Canada’s total area measures 9,984,670 square kilometres. 9% of which is water and the rest being
- Ecumene-> If we have too much geography, most Canadians see very little of it in their daily lives
because most of Canada’s population lives relatively close to the U.S. border.
Different regions such as Arctic tundra up north, deciduous forests, and the prairies.
39% of canada’s land is barren or low vegetation.
1.What is the role of 'forced' specialization in the process of underdevelopment?
Some countries are able to specialize in the production of certain goods better than other goods. This is
dependent on that country's natural resources and what the majority of their population can work on at a
certain skill level. However, the more developed a country is, usually puts them at a better chance at
developing a product faster and more efficiently than a underdeveloped country. This happens a lot, and
the underdeveloped countries are not able to create items that are optimal for themselves and are 'forced
to specialize' in other products as means to stay afloat in the global market. This means that they are not
manufacturing the products that would help them grow the fastest, therefore slowing growth altogether and allowing developed countries to grow faster while the underdeveloped countries to grow slower. This
is similar to the concept of the rich get richer while the poor stay poor.
2.'Core' and 'peripheral' countries in the world system are locked in an interdependent
A 'core' country is a developed country which is then complimented by the 'peripheral' countries which
are underdeveloped. This system works to create a interdependent relationship by having to rely on one
another for goods and services. Both types of countries are part of the global capitalist system, which
then incurs production of goods and services that are more influenced b y the demand of 'core' countries.
Without the raw goods and materials the 'peripheral' countries offer, the 'core' countries would implode
without having the sustainability to stay at their current growth rate. This works the other way as without
'core' countries, 'peripheral' countries would not be able to grow at a rate they could be as they wouldn’t
be able to sustain themselves.
3.What did Harold Innis mean by the 'staple trap'?
The Staple Theory is a theory that dictates that social and economic development is based upon the
production of unprocessed raw materials for export. We can see in Canada's case, social and economic
development is based upon a large series of commodities to larger countries for processing. This being
said, the 'staple trap' mentioned by Harold Innis is the dependence on exports that makes an economy
become vulnerable to global price fluctuations and competition.
1.What is the difference between a formal and a vernacular region?
A vernacular region is a region inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common, for
example we can see language and religion as being some traits. Using language or customs native to a
region. ("Dixie"or "Midwest"). More of a traditional society. It is an area that is relatively homogeneous
with regard to one or more cultural traits. Formal Region - a region with a defined, predetermined
boundary. A good example might be a school district, a country, a city zoning district, a no-fly-zone,
etc. This can differ from physical environmental features to economical and political features of that area.
The difference as we can see is that one is based on a more visually differentiating perspective (formal)
as we can clearly see the difference of that region to a vernacular region because a vernacular region
becomes one through the popularity of a cultural point of a region.
3. Are map projections politically „neutral‟?
Map projection are not politically neutral. Maps have been made with a very centric view towards the
country it used to be made it in past days. However, now the maps that are majorly used today are very
Euro-centric and can easily be changed to be represented as another country, but naturally aren't. This is
because of the influence of the period of colonization from Europe, where they created maps on the
whole world. From that period onwards we can see the influence projected today. Sept 24
Is Canada a core, semi-peripheral, or peripheral nation?
Canada is a core nation. Generally, core nations are the more developed nations of the world and the
countries that contain much of the wealth of the planet. Canada is very abundant in natural resources,
which allows us to export for a large portion of our trade and growth. We also have a large population
with a strong economical and social standard which core countries have.
2. Describe the core-periphery relationship in Canada.
Domestically we can see a very strong core-periphery relationship in Canada. We have the main cities all
located in Ontario, then as we go out we see the peripheral cities and towns as the population gets
sparse the further you go outward from Ontario. This shows us the 'local elites' of the domestic
environment of this region, which easily can help determine which domestic regions are a general focus
for our country and which are not.
3. What is meant by the term 'digital divide'?
The digital divide is the inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology,
particularly the Internet. This is a definition of another aspect in which countries can be divided to see
whom is more developed than the next and how it can be represented.
• What is it meant by the term time space compression?
Time-Space Compression refers to any phenomenon that alters the qualities of and relationship between
time and space. Way to close the gap when trying to communicate with people who are physically distant
- New experience of time and space.
o Changing over time.
o Travel has become faster over time, for example (boat, train, airplane).
- Reduced time to return on capital investment.
o Searching for cheaper labour markets.
o Reduced time on economic investment.
• What are 4 factors of „driving globalization‟?
1) New International Division of Labour.
o The specialization of people, regions or countries in different economic activities.
o Products developed in a market, introduced to new markets, exported, reproduced, original market
o Impact: increased flows of goods, services, money, information and people.
2) New Technologies.
o New and improved technologies in transport and communications have been introduced – the
integration of shipping, railroad and highway systems through containerization; wide bodied cargo jets;
and the development of fax machines, fibre optic networks, communication satellites and electronic mail.
3) Internationalization of Finance. o The emergence of global banking and globally integrated financial markets.
4) Homogenization of Consumer Markets.
o Growing dominance of US products, especially in the entertainment industry, around the world. Movies
from Hollywood being shown all over the world, for example.
• What are some of geographic strategies used by governments to control anti-globalization
Governments wall off parts of the city. By excluding the public, crowds, commotion and violence can be
avoided . In toronto, during the g20 protest, and in quebec, during the ainto-FTAA protests, the cities
were walled off from protestors.
• Is tourism really global? Discuss.
Yes, tourism is global. Tourism impacts both host and guest environments and societies. Since people
come from other countries, this helps the host countries economy through its tourism sector, be it eco
tourism, or dark tourism, or any other sort of tourism. Tourism creates jobs and dependence on tourism
creates economic vulnerability, because if a major site is demolished and it was the country’s main
attraction, no one would spend money to go to that country
• Explain what is meant by anti-tourism.
Anti tourism is not travelling to the main attractions of a certain location. It is about finding beauty and
wonder in areas that are not known to most people. Anti tourism rejects the idea that there is something
special about the Taj Mahal or the Great Wall of China, and other famous sites that attract thousands of
people to it daily. Instead, it is these locations and sites that create the idea of anti tourism.
• Contrast the „globalist‟ and „sceptic‟ perspectives on globalization.\
- Sceptic Perspective.
o Putting a nations state’s interest ahead of the world as a whole; it is meant to benefit the rich
countries, or the countries with the strongest economies ie, the western globe.
- Globalist Perspective.
o The attitude or policy of placing the interests of the world above those of individual nations.
• How does population geography help explain the globalized world?
Population and Space.
1) Flows and Experiences – flows of people from one country to another; experience of migrating people
2) Multiple scales of g