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Raju Das (3)
Midterm

GEO MIDTERM.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1410
Professor
Raju Das
Semester
Fall

Description
SEPT 5-12 1. Whats the differences between space and place? Every place is a space, but not every space is considered a place. Both these terms are mostly dependent on the perspective of the person that is looking at the area. A space is an area where there is no direct meaning to that person. Whereas a place is an area where there is a specific meaning to that person. For example, when you are going to work and walking passed all these stores and bus stops to get there, all those stores/bus stops don’t necessarily have a meaning to you; therefore, those are spaces; however, when you get to work your final destination that has a meaning to you which it is considered a place to you. 2. What is the defining component of globalization? Globalization is the interconnectedness of the world through common processes of economic, political, cultural, and environmental change. Economically, globalization allows for trade and the sharing of products which allows economies to grow. The political aspect to globalization is that it influences different countries with democracy and human rights. Neoliberal policies are the idea for free trade and open markets. Globalization is not good for the environment because it causes pollution due to the transportation of goods. Culturally, it influences people all around the world to do things differently, which may ultimately benefit them and make their lives much easier in doing things. 3. Give examples of how global and local ‘scales’ are interdependent. Examples of global and local scales could include the spread of HIV, SARS and fashion. These are interdependent because many things develop on a local scale through interacting with each other and as a local scale they can eventually spread across the globe and become a global scale. Therefore, in order to become a global scale something must start off as a local scale. Thus, the two are interdependent. For example, fashion may start off as a local scale because fashion trends always start off in one area and eventually expand through the media and publicity. Or another example could be SARS. The diseases started off in one small ‘local’ area then eventually spread to larger areas and globally. This is because if someone that was affected by the disease in one country and in a small area, but they traveled around the world they could spread it internationally which making the disease spread globally. Thus, the local scale became a global scale. 4. Define ‘chorology’ and the important of a ‘chorological view’ to geographies. Chorology is the study and description of regions. It spends time looking at unique characteristics of a region such as natural and human elements and regionalization which covers the techniques on naming spaces into regions. This is important because it allows us to understand the critical factors in shaping the well-being of people and communities within regional boundaries. Additionally, it allows us to understand the animals that live within those regions. 5. What are the criticisms of the doctrine of environmental determinism? Environmental determinism is the study on how the environment is linked to the behaviour of humans. It argues that because of the environment societies and different cultures act and behave differently due to the climatic and geographical factors alone. It also suggests that the area’s environmental characteristics have psychological impacts on its population, and those psychological attitudes define the whole population and how they survive. 6. What is meant by the term ecumene and where is it in Canada? The term ecumene means the total habitable area of a country. The ecumene of a country varies over time due to technology. In Canada, the ecumene is mostly near the border of Canada. That is where most of the population in Canada resides. This is because of the climatic factors, it isn’t as cold as the northern areas and it is much easier to live in the southern areas of Canada. Although it is still cold, it isn’t as bad the let’s say Nunavut. 7. Describe the basic elements of North Atlantic Triangle. This was globalization in the making. It was the trade routes between European, North America, Caribbean and Africa. The most important trade between the Europe and North America was salt. It was very valuable at those times, and sadly, there was slave trading between the USA and Africa which was the base of the Atlantic Triangle. 8. Does Canada have “too much geography”? Discuss. Yes Canada does have too much geography. This is because compared the land area that Canada has, the population size is very small. The main ecumene of Canada is near the border of the USA and that is where most of Canada’s population lives. The different regions of Canada such as the Arctic Tundra up north isn’t as inhabitable and has barren or very low vegetation. SEPT 17. 9. What is the role of forced specialization in the process of underdevelopment? Some countries are able to produce goods better and more efficiently than other countries and that is why they specialize in them. This is because of the countries natural resources and what the majority of the countries work skill levels are based on. Developed countries typically have a better chance in developing a product more quickly and efficiently than a developing country. Since underdeveloped countries can create the products that are optimal for their economic growth, they are forced to specialize in other products to stay in the global market. This means that since they aren’t able to manufacture products that would help them grow the fastest economically; they have to produce other smaller and cheaper products which will cause them to grow slower. This is similar to the concept of the rich get richer and the poor stay poor. 10. Core and peripheral countries in the world system are locked in an interdependent relationship. Explain. A ‘core’ country is a developed country whereas a ‘peripheral’ country is an underdeveloped country. This is an interdependent relationship because they depend on each other for goods and services. This is because the ‘peripheral’ countries have to provide for the demand of the ‘core’ countries because without that, the ‘peripheral’ countries would not be able to sustain by themselves. The core countries provide peripheral countries with economic needs and allows them to grow and sustain themselves. 11. What did Harold Innis mean by the ‘staple trap’? The Staple Theory is a theory that dictates that social and economic development is based upon the production of unprocessed raw materials for exports. Thus the staple trap means that a country is too dependent on exports to make an economy which makes it vulnerable to global price fluctuations and competition. SEPT 19 12. What is the difference between a formal and a vernacular region? A vernacular region is a region that is inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common. (Ex. language and religion) This is more of a traditional society whereas a formal region is a region which has one characteristic this is common through the whole place and it is a more modern society. 13. What is the importance of Henri Lefebvre’s ‘representational’ or ‘lived’ spaces? A ‘lived’ space is a clear mutual understanding of a definition of a space through symbolic or representational figurehead. This figurehead can have multiple representations but nonetheless represent the same general area. For example, 14. Are map projections politically ‘neutral’? No they are not politically neutral. Maps have been made with a centric view towards the country it used to be made in. they are more Eurocentric because the map we are using is the map made by the Europeans. The Europeans made their map when they were traveling, and they made Europe the centre of the maps that we use today. The maps can easily be changed to make any other country the centre of the map; however, typically they aren’t and we just use the Eurocentric maps. SEPT 24 15. Is Canada a core, semi-peripheral, or peripheral nation? Canada is a core nation. Generally, core nations are the more developed nations of the world and the countries that contain much of the wealth of the planet. Canada is very abundant in natural resources, which allows us to export for a large portion of our trade and growth. We also have a large population with a strong economic and social standard which core countries have. 16. Describe the core-periphery relationship in Canada. Domestically we can see a strong core-periphery relationship in Canada. We have all main cities located in Ontario, and then as we go out we see the peripheral cities/towns as the population gets sparse the further you go from Ontario. Thus the ‘local elites’ of the domestic environment of this region can help determine which domestic regions are a general focus for our country and which are not. 17. What is meant by the term ’digital divide’? The digital divide is the inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology (the internet) this can be used to see which countries are more developed. SEPT 26 18. What is it meant by the term time space compression? Time-space compression refers to anything that alters the qualities of a relationship between time and space. A way to get things done a lot faster than it was before. We can accomplish things much easier now because of technology. It is much easier for us to travel and we can travel long distances in shorter timeframes (i.e. boat, car, plane, etc.) now when we make economic investments it can be done with the click of a button through the internet and computers. 19. How does population geography help explain the globalized world? Population and Space. 1) Flows and Experiences – flows of people from one country to another; experience of migrating people 2) Multiple scales of globalization – countries differ from one another in certain areas such as health, economy, politics, food, times of industrialization. 3) The spatial dynamics of economic and political discrepancies – population changes (Europe on population decline; Italy at negative growth 0.07%), Africa’s population growth is at 120%; Jordan’s population will double by 2020. 20. Describe the Demographic Transition Theory The demographic transition theory is a theory that can be shown through the use of a model of population change. For example when there are high birth rates and death rates and they transition to low birth rates and death rates. The decrease in population growth is due to the improved economic production and higher standards of living which is the result of better medicine, education and etc. in the modern world. 21. What role do governments play in landscape transformation? Nature and society are deeply intertwined with each other. The government is mainly about taking all the resources and extracting them for profitability. However, the government soon would realize that if they took all the resources without putting anything back the resource would run out i.e. lumber. The society has a part in this too because the society’s perception on what is good and wrong also has influence on what the government does. So since society believes that pollution and the harming of the ecosystem is bad, the government has to cut down on that or else they may not receive the votes. 22. Define ecological imperialism. It is when you introduce new exotic animals and plants into new ecosystems. For example Europeans brought many of their own plants and animals into the New World when they first arrived. It is not a good thing because it causes problems in the ecosystem such as unbalancing the food chains. 23. What is the main difference between the neoclassical approach to Migration and the Marxist approach? Neoclassical view of migration is understood by rationale choices and goals. For example people have certain set expectations they wish to fulfill (i.e. education, income, job, etc.) and people are willing to move to accomplish these goals. It is very voluntary and individualist. Whereas the Mar
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