1. Whats the differences between space and place?
Every place is a space, but not every space is considered a place. Both these terms are mostly
dependent on the perspective of the person that is looking at the area. A space is an area where
there is no direct meaning to that person. Whereas a place is an area where there is a specific
meaning to that person. For example, when you are going to work and walking passed all these
stores and bus stops to get there, all those stores/bus stops don’t necessarily have a meaning to
you; therefore, those are spaces; however, when you get to work your final destination that has a
meaning to you which it is considered a place to you.
2. What is the defining component of globalization?
Globalization is the interconnectedness of the world through common processes of economic,
political, cultural, and environmental change. Economically, globalization allows for trade and the
sharing of products which allows economies to grow. The political aspect to globalization is that it
influences different countries with democracy and human rights. Neoliberal policies are the idea for
free trade and open markets. Globalization is not good for the environment because it causes
pollution due to the transportation of goods. Culturally, it influences people all around the world to
do things differently, which may ultimately benefit them and make their lives much easier in doing
3. Give examples of how global and local ‘scales’ are interdependent.
Examples of global and local scales could include the spread of HIV, SARS and fashion. These are
interdependent because many things develop on a local scale through interacting with each other
and as a local scale they can eventually spread across the globe and become a global scale.
Therefore, in order to become a global scale something must start off as a local scale. Thus, the two
are interdependent. For example, fashion may start off as a local scale because fashion trends
always start off in one area and eventually expand through the media and publicity. Or another
example could be SARS. The diseases started off in one small ‘local’ area then eventually spread to
larger areas and globally. This is because if someone that was affected by the disease in one country
and in a small area, but they traveled around the world they could spread it internationally which
making the disease spread globally. Thus, the local scale became a global scale.
4. Define ‘chorology’ and the important of a ‘chorological view’ to geographies.
Chorology is the study and description of regions. It spends time looking at unique characteristics of
a region such as natural and human elements and regionalization which covers the techniques on
naming spaces into regions. This is important because it allows us to understand the critical factors
in shaping the well-being of people and communities within regional boundaries. Additionally, it
allows us to understand the animals that live within those regions. 5. What are the criticisms of the doctrine of environmental determinism?
Environmental determinism is the study on how the environment is linked to the behaviour of
humans. It argues that because of the environment societies and different cultures act and behave
differently due to the climatic and geographical factors alone. It also suggests that the area’s
environmental characteristics have psychological impacts on its population, and those psychological
attitudes define the whole population and how they survive.
6. What is meant by the term ecumene and where is it in Canada?
The term ecumene means the total habitable area of a country. The ecumene of a country varies
over time due to technology. In Canada, the ecumene is mostly near the border of Canada. That is
where most of the population in Canada resides. This is because of the climatic factors, it isn’t as
cold as the northern areas and it is much easier to live in the southern areas of Canada. Although it
is still cold, it isn’t as bad the let’s say Nunavut.
7. Describe the basic elements of North Atlantic Triangle.
This was globalization in the making. It was the trade routes between European, North America,
Caribbean and Africa. The most important trade between the Europe and North America was salt. It
was very valuable at those times, and sadly, there was slave trading between the USA and Africa
which was the base of the Atlantic Triangle.
8. Does Canada have “too much geography”? Discuss.
Yes Canada does have too much geography. This is because compared the land area that Canada
has, the population size is very small. The main ecumene of Canada is near the border of the USA
and that is where most of Canada’s population lives. The different regions of Canada such as the
Arctic Tundra up north isn’t as inhabitable and has barren or very low vegetation.
9. What is the role of forced specialization in the process of underdevelopment?
Some countries are able to produce goods better and more efficiently than other countries and that
is why they specialize in them. This is because of the countries natural resources and what the
majority of the countries work skill levels are based on. Developed countries typically have a better
chance in developing a product more quickly and efficiently than a developing country. Since
underdeveloped countries can create the products that are optimal for their economic growth, they
are forced to specialize in other products to stay in the global market. This means that since they
aren’t able to manufacture products that would help them grow the fastest economically; they have
to produce other smaller and cheaper products which will cause them to grow slower. This is similar
to the concept of the rich get richer and the poor stay poor. 10. Core and peripheral countries in the world system are locked in an interdependent
A ‘core’ country is a developed country whereas a ‘peripheral’ country is an underdeveloped
country. This is an interdependent relationship because they depend on each other for goods and
services. This is because the ‘peripheral’ countries have to provide for the demand of the ‘core’
countries because without that, the ‘peripheral’ countries would not be able to sustain by
themselves. The core countries provide peripheral countries with economic needs and allows them
to grow and sustain themselves.
11. What did Harold Innis mean by the ‘staple trap’?
The Staple Theory is a theory that dictates that social and economic development is based upon the
production of unprocessed raw materials for exports. Thus the staple trap means that a country is
too dependent on exports to make an economy which makes it vulnerable to global price
fluctuations and competition.
12. What is the difference between a formal and a vernacular region?
A vernacular region is a region that is inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in
common. (Ex. language and religion) This is more of a traditional society whereas a formal region is a
region which has one characteristic this is common through the whole place and it is a more modern
13. What is the importance of Henri Lefebvre’s ‘representational’ or ‘lived’ spaces?
A ‘lived’ space is a clear mutual understanding of a definition of a space through symbolic or
representational figurehead. This figurehead can have multiple representations but nonetheless
represent the same general area. For example,
14. Are map projections politically ‘neutral’?
No they are not politically neutral. Maps have been made with a centric view towards the country it
used to be made in. they are more Eurocentric because the map we are using is the map made by
the Europeans. The Europeans made their map when they were traveling, and they made Europe
the centre of the maps that we use today. The maps can easily be changed to make any other
country the centre of the map; however, typically they aren’t and we just use the Eurocentric maps.
15. Is Canada a core, semi-peripheral, or peripheral nation?
Canada is a core nation. Generally, core nations are the more developed nations of the world and
the countries that contain much of the wealth of the planet. Canada is very abundant in natural resources, which allows us to export for a large portion of our trade and growth. We also have a
large population with a strong economic and social standard which core countries have.
16. Describe the core-periphery relationship in Canada.
Domestically we can see a strong core-periphery relationship in Canada. We have all main cities
located in Ontario, and then as we go out we see the peripheral cities/towns as the population gets
sparse the further you go from Ontario. Thus the ‘local elites’ of the domestic environment of this
region can help determine which domestic regions are a general focus for our country and which are
17. What is meant by the term ’digital divide’?
The digital divide is the inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology (the
internet) this can be used to see which countries are more developed.
18. What is it meant by the term time space compression?
Time-space compression refers to anything that alters the qualities of a relationship between time
and space. A way to get things done a lot faster than it was before. We can accomplish things much
easier now because of technology. It is much easier for us to travel and we can travel long distances
in shorter timeframes (i.e. boat, car, plane, etc.) now when we make economic investments it can
be done with the click of a button through the internet and computers.
19. How does population geography help explain the globalized world?
Population and Space.
1) Flows and Experiences – flows of people from one country to another; experience of migrating
2) Multiple scales of globalization – countries differ from one another in certain areas such as
health, economy, politics, food, times of industrialization.
3) The spatial dynamics of economic and political discrepancies – population changes (Europe on
population decline; Italy at negative growth 0.07%), Africa’s population growth is at 120%; Jordan’s
population will double by 2020.
20. Describe the Demographic Transition Theory
The demographic transition theory is a theory that can be shown through the use of a model of
population change. For example when there are high birth rates and death rates and they transition
to low birth rates and death rates. The decrease in population growth is due to the improved
economic production and higher standards of living which is the result of better medicine, education
and etc. in the modern world. 21. What role do governments play in landscape transformation?
Nature and society are deeply intertwined with each other. The government is mainly about taking
all the resources and extracting them for profitability. However, the government soon would realize
that if they took all the resources without putting anything back the resource would run out i.e.
lumber. The society has a part in this too because the society’s perception on what is good and
wrong also has influence on what the government does. So since society believes that pollution and
the harming of the ecosystem is bad, the government has to cut down on that or else they may not
receive the votes.
22. Define ecological imperialism.
It is when you introduce new exotic animals and plants into new ecosystems. For example
Europeans brought many of their own plants and animals into the New World when they first
arrived. It is not a good thing because it causes problems in the ecosystem such as unbalancing the
23. What is the main difference between the neoclassical approach to Migration and the Marxist
Neoclassical view of migration is understood by rationale choices and goals. For example people
have certain set expectations they wish to fulfill (i.e. education, income, job, etc.) and people are
willing to move to accomplish these goals. It is very voluntary and individualist. Whereas the