1.) What is the difference between a place and a space?
Place: a concept with two levels of meaning 1- an objective location that
has uniqueness and interdependence with others places 2-a subjective
social and cultural construct. Somewhere that has personal meaning for
individuals or groups. Socially constructed
Space: where objects are located/events occur
2.) What is the defining component of globalization?
Globalization: the increasing interconnectedness of different parts around
the world through common processes of economic, environment, political
and cultural change. Spread of culture throughout the world.
world wide integration & development
‐largely characterized by persistent & inevitable uneven development
‐integration of cultural, political and economic process connecting different
3.) Explain Ratzels concept of Lebensraum
He was influenced by Karl Litter and as a follower of Charles Darwin. He
developed the organic state theory with his student. Lebensraum means
"living space". Refers to unification of the country and the acquisition of
colonies based on the English and French models and westward expansion
of the US. He believed that the development of people was primarily
influenced by their geographical situation and that a people that
successfully adapted to one location would proceed naturally to another.
The expansion to fill available space was a natural and necessary feature if
healthy species. He emphasized the needs for overseas colonies to which
Germans ought to migrate outside if Europe.
-thinks of nations as ‘living beings’ (if you’re not growing, you’re dying
-‘organic state theory’
4.) What are two common elements within a critical approach to
5.) What is the North Atlantic triangle and why is it important to the
economic development of Canada ?
Colonial trade around 1750. Theoretical for studying the history of
Canadian foreign policy. Explains the importance of United Kingdom United
States relations to Canada's security and even survival. Series of triangles linking North Atlantic to other places in the world and is important to trading
and economic growth. Was important in avoiding a reputation of American
‐for studying the history of Canadian foreign policy
‐united kingdom, united states and Canada
‐about Canada’s security/survival in late 19th century
6.) Does Canada have "too much geography"
-We don't have too much history we have geography in Canada because
it's so big
-how much of it is habitual area?
‐tundra, rain forests, farmlands and the prairies
‐we live mainly around the circle of the great lakes
7.) How are "core" and "peripheral" countries in the world system
locked in interdependent relationships.
Core: regions that dominate trade control the most advanced technologies
and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies. Have
relatively high percapita. First ones were Holland and England and later
we're joined by manufacturing and exporting regions in other parts of
Western Europe and North America later japan and Pacific Rim.
Peripheral: regions with dependent and disadvantageous trading
relationships obsolete technologies and underdeveloped or narrowly
specialized economies with low levels of productivity. Weaker regions that
have remained economically and politically unsuccessful throughout the
process of incorporating into the world system.
core/peripheral are interdependent parts of the global
capitalist system, alternative used of resources, dependency is
maintained by ‘local elites’
8.) What is a 'staple' and what did Harold Innis mean by the 'staples
Staple: A minimally processed primary resource produced mostly for
export. Ex. In canada is it fish fur wood grain and minerals
Staple trap: dictates that social and economic development is based upon
the production of unprocessed raw materials for export. -export of Canada's natural resources locked this country into dependency
as a resource hinterland for more advanced economies and so delayed the
maturing of its own economy
-economy becomes vulnerable to global price fluctuations and
staple: minimally produced primary resource mostly for export
staple theory: social & economic development is based upon the
production of unprocessed raw materials for export
staples trap: as economy becomes vulnerable to global price fluctuations &
• Canada social and economic development has largely been based
upon the export if a series of commodities to larger economies for
9.) Is Canada a core semi peripheral or peripheral nation?
Semi peripheral: able to exploit peripheral regions but themselves are
exploited and dominated by core regions. Countries that were once
• Neither are permanent
• Canada is core and was once peripheral
10.) Describe the core- periphery relationship within Canada?
Not all of Canada's provinces and territories share uniformly and this
prosperity. Could be divided into its heartland and hinterland. Regional
cores and peripheries with in the country. Regional cores are made up of
local cores and peripheries result of more local processes of development.
Ex Toronto. Wealthy and poor sections. World system is not made of few
homogeneous regions. Much more geographically varied.
‐periphery is often lesser developed than the core; resources flow from the
periphery to the core, however decisions flow from the core to the periphery
‐the core is fueled by the periphery however the periphery is told how to
11.) What is the difference between a formal and a vernacular
region ? Formal: one that is uniform in terms of specific criteria. Ex the Canadian
Shield if we consider geological terms. Region with a defined,
predetermined boundary. ex.school district, a no fly zone
Vernacular: local region as identified by the regions own
inhabitants. (popular/perceptual): using language or customs to define a
region ex. dixie or midwest
12.) Describe the four principles of spatial
interaction: interdependence between places and regions can be
sustained only through movement and flows. Geographers use SI as
shorthand for all kinds of movement an flows involving human activity. Ex:
shopping trips, commuting, telecommunications, migration,
vacation. Responsible for interdependence between places.
Complementarity: there must be a demand and supply in different places.
Can come from variations in physical environments and resources. Ex
Florida in winter
Transferability: Depends on frictional or deterrent effects of distance.
Function on two things- 1) cost of moving a particular thing measured in
money and time 2) the ability of the item to bear these costs. If the costs of
an item makes it too expensive to sell then that product does not have
transferability between those places .
Intervening opportunities: Are important in determining the the volume and
pattern of movements and flows. They are simply alternative origins or
destinations. Statism interactions between and origin and a destination will
be proportional to the number or opportunities at the destination and
inversely proportional to the number or opportunities at another
Spatial diffusion:** disease outbreaks, technological innovations, political
movements and new Musical fads all originate in specific places and
subsequently spread to other places and regions.
13.) What is meant by the term time-space compression?
New experience of time and space. Reduced time to return on capital
investment. Reduced barriers to flow of capital.
‐new experiences of time & space (skype)
‐reduced time to return on capital investment (speeds up capital, reduced
time of the return on any economic investment)
‐reduced barriers to flow of capital (makes ^^ easier) 14.) Describe the three perspectives on globalization
1.)Hyper globalist View: pro globalization. Open markets and free trade
and investment across global markets allow more and more people to
share in prosperity of a growing world economy. Economic and political
interdependence creates shared interests that help prevent conflict and
foster support for common values. Democracy and human rights will
spread because of this neoliberal policies that promote open markets
and free trade. Necessary for political social life. They believe that
current phase of globalization signals the beginning of the end for the
nation state and the denationalization of economies meaning that
national boundaries will become irrelevant with respect to economic
processes. Global governance will increasingly rest with global
institutions like the WTO. Global economy. Decline of nation state.
Global integration. New international divisor of labor. Global integration.
New international division of labor
2.)The skeptical view: globalization is just another form of capitalization.
Believes that new global economic integration represents nothing
particularly new and that the talk of globalization is exaggerated.
Drawing on stats of world flows of trade labor and investment they argue
that contemporary economic integration is actually less significant then it
was in the late 19 century when all countries shared a common
monetary system known as gold standard. They believe we are
witnessing regionalization as three major regional financial and trading
blocs of Europe North America and east Asia aka japan control world
economy and limit participation of other regions in that economy.
Dismissive that the nation state is in decline. Neo colonialism/
imperialism. Neoliberalism like #1. Old integration division of labor.
Regional integration. Old international division of labor.
3.)Transformationist view: contemporary processes of globalization are
historically unprecedented as governments and people across the globe
confront the absence of any clear distinction between the global and the
local , between domestic affairs and international affairs. Understands
globalization as a profound transformative force that is changing
societies, economies and institutions of government aka the world order.
They make no claim of the future trajectory of globalization nor do they
see present globalization as a pale version of a more globalize 19ty
century. They see globalization as a long term historical process that Is
underpin by crises and contradictions that are likely to shape it in all
sorts of unpredictable ways. They claim that historical unprecedented contemporary patters of economic, military, technological, ecological,
migratory, political and cultural flows have functionally linked all parts of
the world into a larger global system in which countries and regions are
increasing interdependent. State is being transformed. No clear future.
Uneven integration. Increasing inequality among people at local and
globalist: placing views of entire world over individual nations
sceptic: doubts the authenticity of the authentic beliefs
15.) Is tourism really global? EXPLAIN
‐ Canada has a tourism deficit (we spend more money abroad)
‐ are people really learning & understanding each other
*which is what tourism is* if they are only focused in the rich northern
-social economicic, cultural, environmental impacts
-don’t go to the country to learn culture they go to see sights
16.) What is meant by anti-tourism?
‐wonders are diminished
‐wall of china, taj mahal, pyramids of egypt (not interesting
-there is nothing new to see so the travelor needs to become more of a
traveler and less of a tourist
-open new zones of experience
-places were ordinary people chose to avoid
-true voyagers are anti-tourist
17.) What are the four aspects of globalization?
‐new international division of labour: specialization of people,
regions/countries in diff. economic activities (increased flow on goods,
services, money, info and people)
‐internationalization of finance
‐homogenization of consumer markets