hist 1010 exam notes.docx

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
1908 Bosnian crisis
Revolutionary situation in Turkish Empire widespread revolts against Turkish rule on
Balkans
Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina
Turkey protest
Russia protests and supports Serbia
Serbia protests and mobilizes (creation of Greater Serbia)
England backs Russia in order to diffuse military conflict
German policy decisive
Backs Austria but no preventative war against Serbia (as desired by Austrian Chief of
Staff Franz Freiherr Conrad von Hotzendorf)
Berlin warns Russia not to support Serbia (Petersburger Note March 1909)
Russian gov backs down humiliated from now on rearmament
First trial run for ww1?
Russian military weakness saved Europe from war
England adopted a clear stance against Germany by backing Russia
Consequence = armaments race
Balkan wars 1911 1913
Cooperation b/w British and German governments assures containment of conflicts
Italy fights Turkey over Libya (Tripolis)
Balkan war: Oct 1912 Serbia (wants Adriatic port). Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, fight
Turkey
Balkan War Bulgaria attacks Serbia
What had changed by 1914
Why did brit-German cooperation fail in 1914?
1912- Brit gov fails to reach a naval agreement with Germany (Admiral Tirpitz)
Schlieffen Plan assumes British neutrality
German war planning
Alfred Schlieffen chief of Staff
Best to plan the whole war
Planned for a two front war
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Planned for victory
Premise: no speed military victory over Russia, quick victory against France possible
Schlieffen Plan Makes Germany Aggressor
Everything depended on speedy mobilization
Violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality
Expectation Great Britain stays neutral
Military risks long supply lines
Germany numerical superiority over French army necessary
Austria does not figure at all
German war Planning
Politicians do not question this politically insane war planning of the generals
Military has the recipe for success??
1912 German army reform
Raymond Poincare elected French president French revanchism
Did german military take a calculated risk? = the enemy will be stronger with every
passing year
Kaiser Wilhelm II’s – “personal regime thus reinforced the fundamental tendency of the
Bismarckian system to rely ultimately on the military”
What had changed by 1914?
Russian re-armament
French re-armament
Make success of Schlieffen Plan questionable
Helmuth von Moltke, Germain chief of staff, knew war could not be won against both
countries
British-German naval race
Not the people decide
Kaiser Willhelm II and his entourage
Czar Nicholas II and his entourage
July 14 Peace demonstrations
26-30 July 1914 = mass demonstrations for peace in Berlin
31 July 1914 = French Socialist Leader jean Jaures murdered by nationalist
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2nd socialist international mass strikes will prevent war
Defensive war
People in all nations convinced fighting a defensive war
Extremely important for peace negotiations, evaluation of Versailles Peace Treaty, for
long term consequences of war
Czarist Russia
War or revolution (1905)
30 july orders total mobilization
In response to Austro-Hungarian declaration of war against Serbia (July 28)
July 20-23 1914 French President Raymond Poincare visits Czar Nicholas II in Russia
Berlin Aug 4
Kaiser Wilhelm II addressing the Reichstag
I no longer recognize parties, only see Germans
Party truce- no discrimination (Against socialists and catholics)
Berlin Aug 4 Reichstag
Chancellor Bethmann Holweg explains events:
Germany is the victim no choice
Russian mobilization
War Guilt
German and French historians October 1951
Publish unanimous conclusion that “the documents do not permit to burden one
government or country with the guilt for WWI”
Different Interpretations: economic
“only Germany had all to gain or all to lose”
100 years of british industrial development into 30 years
International trend towards protectionism
Armaments race mass armies
War planning mass mobilization
“best defense is the offense”
Navalism
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Document Summary

Revolutionary situation in turkish empire widespread revolts against turkish rule on. Serbia protests and mobilizes (creation of greater serbia) England backs russia in order to diffuse military conflict. Backs austria but no preventative war against serbia (as desired by austrian chief of. Berlin warns russia not to support serbia (petersburger note march 1909) Russian gov backs down humiliated from now on rearmament. Russian military weakness saved europe from war. England adopted a clear stance against germany by backing russia. Cooperation b/w british and german governments assures containment of conflicts. Balkan war: oct 1912 serbia (wants adriatic port). 1912- brit gov fails to reach a naval agreement with germany (admiral tirpitz) Premise: no speed military victory over russia, quick victory against france possible. Germany numerical superiority over french army necessary. Politicians do not question this politically insane war planning of the generals. Raymond poincare elected french president french revanchism. = the enemy will be stronger with every passing year.

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