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HIST 1010
Irmgard Steinisch

1908 Bosnian crisis  Revolutionary situation in Turkish Empire – widespread revolts against Turkish rule on Balkans  Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina  Turkey protest  Russia protests and supports Serbia  Serbia protests and mobilizes (creation of Greater Serbia)  England backs Russia in order to diffuse military conflict German policy decisive  Backs Austria but no preventative war against Serbia (as desired by Austrian Chief of Staff Franz Freiherr Conrad von Hotzendorf)  Berlin warns Russia not to support Serbia (Petersburger Note – March 1909)  Russian gov backs down – humiliated from now on – rearmament First trial run for ww1?  Russian military weakness saved Europe from war  England adopted a clear stance against Germany by backing Russia  Consequence = armaments race Balkan wars 1911 – 1913  Cooperation b/w British and German governments assures containment of conflicts  Italy fights Turkey over Libya (Tripolis)  Balkan war: Oct 1912 – Serbia (wants Adriatic port). Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, fight Turkey  Balkan War – Bulgaria attacks Serbia What had changed by 1914  Why did brit-German cooperation fail in 1914?  1912- Brit gov fails to reach a naval agreement with Germany (Admiral Tirpitz)  Schlieffen Plan assumes British neutrality German war planning  Alfred Schlieffen – chief of Staff  Best to plan the whole war  Planned for a two front war  Planned for victory  Premise: no speed military victory over Russia, quick victory against France possible Schlieffen Plan Makes Germany Aggressor  Everything depended on speedy mobilization  Violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality  Expectation – Great Britain stays neutral  Military risks – long supply lines  Germany numerical superiority over French army necessary  Austria does not figure at all German war Planning  Politicians do not question this politically insane war planning of the generals  Military has the recipe for success??  1912 – German army reform  Raymond Poincare elected French president – French revanchism  Did german military take a calculated risk? = the enemy will be stronger with every passing year  Kaiser Wilhelm II’s – “personal regime thus reinforced the fundamental tendency of the Bismarckian system to rely ultimately on the military” What had changed by 1914?  Russian re-armament  French re-armament  Make success of Schlieffen Plan questionable  Helmuth von Moltke, Germain chief of staff, knew war could not be won against both countries  British-German naval race Not the people decide  Kaiser Willhelm II and his entourage  Czar Nicholas II and his entourage July 14 Peace demonstrations  26-30 July 1914 = mass demonstrations for peace in Berlin  31 July 1914 = French Socialist Leader jean Jaures murdered by nationalist  2 socialist international – mass strikes will prevent war Defensive war  People in all nations convinced – fighting a defensive war  Extremely important for peace negotiations, evaluation of Versailles Peace Treaty, for long term consequences of war Czarist Russia  War or revolution (1905)  30 july orders total mobilization  In response to Austro-Hungarian declaration of war against Serbia (July 28)  July 20-23 1914 French President Raymond Poincare visits Czar Nicholas II in Russia Berlin Aug 4  Kaiser Wilhelm II addressing the Reichstag  I no longer recognize parties, only see Germans  Party truce- no discrimination (Against socialists and catholics) Berlin Aug 4 – Reichstag  Chancellor Bethmann – Holweg explains events:  Germany is the victim – no choice  Russian mobilization War Guilt  German and French historians – October 1951  Publish unanimous conclusion that “the documents do not permit to burden one government or country with the guilt for WWI” Different Interpretations: economic  “only Germany had all to gain or all to lose”  100 years of british industrial development into 30 years  International trend towards protectionism  Armaments race – mass armies  War planning – mass mobilization  “best defense is the offense”  Navalism Fishers Controversy  Germany’s war aims (1961)  War of illusions (1969)  Thesis: German gov wanted war Social Imperialism  How to stay in power without popular support  Fear of socialism, fear of revolution  Primacy of domestic over foreign policy German Foreign Policy – weltpolitik  Imperialist expansion necessary to create popular support for shaky Bismarckian system Unsuccessful  1905/6 – first moroccan crisis ends in no territorial compensation for Germany in the face of French expansionism in morocco  1911/12 Fishers conclusion  German did not stumble into war  Gov wanted war  Germany was aggressor and early Russian mobilization made it possible to declare war of defensive  World domination Total War - New military technology: - Machine gun, heavy artillery – tanks - Poison gas - Airplanes - German zeppelins – raids on southern English towns - German submarines - (British naval blockade) War morale - Massive slaughter – dead and war cripples The Schlieffen Plan - Speed – numeric superiority essential - Western front in august 1914 - 78 German infantry divisions face - 72 french, 5 british, 6 belgian divisions = 83 6-9 September 1914 - French counter- offensive stops German advance - German causalities to mid Sept. 1914 = western front = ca. 350 000 soldiers - French = ca. 400 000 - Stellungskrieg / Trench Warfare Eastern Front - Small German defense force - Russian armies attack - Two front war - General chief of staff helmut von moltke, the younger - Sends troops from western front to eastern front - Heroes of Tannenberg – chief of staff erich von Ludendorff who led attack through Belgium - Sends troops from western front to eastern front - Russian invasion – Koenigsberg/Kaliningrad Austria-Hungary / Habsburg Empire - Chief of staff Franz Conrad von Hoetzendorff - Strategy = defeat Serbia, “liberate” Poland and Ukraine to defeat Russia - Disaster of Lemberg – Sept 1914 Serbia – first shots fired in WWI - July 29 1914 – Austrian attack on Belgrade, capital of Serbia - Serbia occupied in late 1915 - Enormous losses – 250 000 soldiers Turkey / Ottoman Empire - November 11 1914 – declaration of war, holy war (jihad) - Young Turks: Naval Minister, War Minister – Enva Pasha – most influential, Interior Minister Mehmet Talaat - November 1914 – declaration of war + joins war on the side of Central Powers - Why? 1. National honour – Britain does not deliver two paid for battle ships during July crisis 1914. 2. Turkish retaliation of granting sanctuary to stranded German cruisers leads to British naval blockade of Turkish coast line - 3. British policy aids alliance with Central Powers, so doe German victories in Russia – Central powers good chance to win war. 4. Central power more logical choice – History!! Russia is the arch enemy now allied with Entente powers German and Turkish goals vis-avis Russia – October 17, 2012 1. Knock Russia out of the war as soon as possible. Explains: Atta
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