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HIST 1010
Kuk/ Riddell

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS THE BIOLOGY OF MIND MODULE 4 - Plato correctly located the mind in the spherical head - Aristotle believed the mind was in the heart which pumps warmth and vitality to the body - German physician Franz Gall proposed that phrenology- studying the bumps on the skull could reveal a person’s mental abilities and character traits  Succeeded in focusing on the localization of function- the idea that various brain regions have particular functions BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: concerned with the links between biology and behavior. Includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behavior genetics, and evolutionary psychology. These researchers may call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists - Researchers seeking to understand the biology of the mind have discovered that: The body is composed of cells  Among these are nerve cells that conduct electricity and “talk” to one another by sending chemical messages across a tiny gap that separates them  Specific brain system serves specific functions  We integrate information processed in these different brain systems to construct out experience of sights and sounds, meanings and memories, pain and passion  Our adaptive brain is wired by our experience NEURONS: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system  Each neuron consists of a cell body and its branching fibers DENDRITES: a neuron’s bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body AXON: the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands  Dendrites listen, Axons speak  Axons may be very long, projecting several feet through the body MYELIN SHEATH: a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next  if myelin present by age 25, neural efficient, judgment and self-control grow, if myelin sheath degenerates, multiple sclerosis results(loss of muscle control) ACTION POTENTIAL: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon - Neurons generate electricity from chemical events  The fluid outside the axon positively charged, axons fluid interior negatively charged= resting potential; the axons surface is selectively permeable  When a neuron fires, the first section of the axon opens and positively charged ions go through the cell membrane- this depolarizes the axon causing another axon channel to open - during the refractory period the neuron pumps the positively charged ions backs outside, then it can dire again - Most signals are excitatory (accelerate), others are inhibitory  If excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity, or threshold, the combined signals trigger an action potential THRESHOLD: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse - the neurons reaction is an all-or-none response  A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire and to fire more often but does not affect the action potential’s strength or speed SYNAPSE: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft  Spanish anatomist Santigo Ramon y Cajal near-unions of neurons calling them “protoplasmic kisses” NEUROTRANSMITTERS: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse REUPTAKE: a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron - Neurotransmitters vary with the receptors they stimulate  Acetylcholine (ACh) – learning and memory and the messenger at every junction between motor neurons and skeletal muscles SOME NEUROTRANSMITTERS & THEIR FUNCTIONS Neurotransmitter Function Acetylcholine (ACh) Enables muscle action, learning and memory Dopamine Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal Norepinephrine Helps control alertness and arousal GABA (gammaaminobutyric A major inhibitory acid) neurotransmitter Glutamate A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory - The brain produces its own naturally occurring opiate receptors ENDORPHINS: “morphine within”; natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure  when flooded with opiate drugs the brain may stop producing its own natural opiates, if the drug is withdrawn= intense discomfort - Agonist molecules bind to its receptor and mimic if effect; produce a temporary high by amplifying normal sensation of arousal and pleasure - Antagonist bind receptors but their effect is instead to block a neurotransmitter’s functioning NERVOUS SYSTEM: the body’s speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS): the brain and spinal cord PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS): the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body NERVES: bundled axons that form neural “cables” connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs SENSORY NEURONS: neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord MOTOR NEURONS: neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands INTERNEURONS: neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs - The Peripheral Nervous System  Has two components: 1) Somatic Nervous System: the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system 2) Autonomic Nervous System: the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms- has two important, basic functions: a) Sympathetic Nervous System: the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations b) Parasympathetic Nervous System: the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conversing its energy - The Central Nervous System  The brains neurons cluster into work groups called neural networks o Each layer’s cells connect with various cells in the neural network’ next layer- learning, speaking a foreign language, solve a math problem occurs as feedback strengthens connections= Neurons that fire together wire together  The spinal cord is a two-way information highway connecting between the peripheral nervous system and the brain o Ascending neural fibers send up sensory information, and descending fibers send back motor-control information – the neural pathways govern out reflex, automatic responses to stimuli REFLEX: a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream HORMONES: chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues  influence our interest in sex, food and aggression ADRENAL GLANDS: Pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouses the body in times of stress  “fight-or-flight” response PITUITARY GLAND: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth (physical development) and controls othe
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