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HIST 1050 FINAL EXAM - Concepts.doc

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HIST 1050
Nicholas Rogers

HIST 1050 FINAL EXAM REVIEW Abolition and Abolitionism Abolition movement began in 18 and 19 centuries 1807, Slave Trade Act (UK): unlawful for any British subject to capture/ transport slaves This Act still did not end slavery 1833: Slavery Abolition Act slavery became illegal, some influences: Raynal, influential priest: slavery was un-Christian act, against Christian morals Quackers, Christian group played a role in abolishment act Missions dedicated to converting slaves in British colonies into Christians Art to build moral consciousness and raise awareness to inhumane acts of slavery Granville Sharp activist, promoted abolishment of slavery, arguing that England should be a place for freedom & that slavery went against British democratic values Sharp founded Sierra Leone Province of Freedom Olaudah Equiano African, previous slave who bought his freedom, he wrote an autobiography depicting the horrors of slavery fuelled the abolishment Related: legal challenges such as the Zong Case of 1781 (100 sick slaves thrown overboard), and the case of James Somerset, 1772 Lecture: October 20 , 2011 Maroon Societies: Runaway slaves in the West Indies, Central America, South America, North America formed independent settlements together Jamaica largest Caribbean Island, colonized by the British most slavery plantations took place there The Maroon Socities already existed in Jamaica, when it was colonized by the Spanish After a decade of the Bush war, the Maroons and the British settlers signed a treaty: Maroons had territory in the mountains In return, they would return future runaway slave, planters they were paid for doing this job This separated the Maroons from the rest of the black community on the Islands Maroons lived under their own rulers in own towns, but with British supervisors 1700s, British planters were fearful that Maroons were secretly helping in the slave revolts (ex. Hanover Slave Revolt) A 2-year war between Maroons and British settlers, treaty signed in 1773 Related Terms: Saramanka Maroons, Hanover Slave Revolt (Craton and Sheridans articles) Lecture: October 20, 2011 Capitalism: Seen as encouraging economic growth Gradually spread throughout the Western World in the 19 and 20 centuries Economical system regarding mass production of goods and services for profit and income Societies before/after 1865 huge difference between social developments 1790-1865: focused on social class, social rights, family wage based economy, and a centralized state After 1875-1914: focus shifted to social masses, social organizations, family breadwinner economies, and an interventionist state Also, huge increase in mass communication (ex. telegraphs, telephones, moving pictures, etc.) Social organizations: labour unions = more job opportunities New concentration of worker rights Samuel Gompers, American labour union leader Gender and class: family breadwinner = father, husband, the man Responsible for income Wife took care of domestic duties If women worked: low income, cannot be the breadwinner, even though she may be a single mother Most women worked before married career impermanent Advanced technology/ mass communication = simplier jobs for women However simple the job, they still contributed to capitalism and economic growth Related Terms/ Lectures: Mass Consumption; Unions, Socialism and the Working Class; Workers and Unions Lecture: January 3, 2012 Married Womens Property Act (1870): UK allowed married women to own and control own property / earnings During time of growing urbanization in Britain large number of women entering the cities with husbands/families Prior the Act, women and money they earned automatically became property of husband Under the law women were not recognized as individuals, had no legal rights once they were married Even with the Act, womens rights were still limited Womens liability for debts Divisions in gender and class identities Debts: other methods of payments came about credit Women were not liable to debt, if everything she bought was a necessity the husbands were liable because he is the main provider of the family However, if the women bought items of luxury, she is responsible for the debt, even if she had no money This showed that although this Act gave women more rights, there were still limitations seen as an extension of their husband Related Lectures: Feminism, Citizenship and Temperance American Revolution: American Revolution the joining of 13 colonies in North America against the authority of the British Empire Actions included: imposing taxes on American goods (ex. sugar duties) The rejection of British governance = birth of the American Declaration of Independence, 1776 Based on belief of equal rights among man, freedom of speech and religion, and citizens ability to elect Gov. without forced rule Protest of tax impositions by Americans, British brought troops to regions, (Boston + Philadelphia) Started the American Revolutionary War, 1776-1783 118 of every 10,000 people were killed The political upheaval of 13 colonies of North America formed the United States of America, after winning the American Revolutionary War 1781 Related Readings/ Lectures: Hanover Revolt American Revolutionary War, 1781 st Lecture #13: Age of Revolutions and Industrialism, Nov 1 , 2011 Marriage and Fertility (18 20 Century): th th Demographics of marriage and fertility changed significantly from 18 20 century (Britain, U.S and Canada) 18 C: courtship practices = standard before marriage practices in British society Growing popularity with fleet marriages Attempt made to regulate marriage Fleet marriages quick marriages, without parental consent, usually among the lower classes Rise of illegitimate children = problem 30-40% bride pregnant before marriage found out through marriage registries and birth certificates Marriage Act, 1753 to ban fleet marriages all marriages must be conducted in Church with official marriage license In U.S. : women marrying / having children younger 1850s: family size grew smaller: th Result of state intervention mandatory schooling, childrens rights 20 C: large decline in fertility in 1870s, women had avg. of 5 children, now less Mid 20 C: U.S & Canada high point of marriage resulted in Baby Boomer generation high peak of births after WWII Decline of fertility after baby boomer era = baby bonus cheques to encourage Canadians to have more children th Related Terms/ Readings: Elizabeth Marshs marriage to James Crisp, 2 children 18 C Lecture#8: Sex, Love, and Marriage (Oct.6 ,2011), Lecture #14: The Demographic Transition (Nov 10 ,2011), Lecture #35: Women, Marriage and Employment (March 15,2012) Birth of the Schooled Society: Before 1780s, no essential schooling in Britain This gave rich people an advantage in society Governmentality = people with higher level of education were treated better than others Before education became compulsory, the church had a critical role as a moral regulator Church had to critically shape peoples morals, sense of self, sense of shame, and sense of behaviour Church attendance = mandatory Bible taught most people to read and write, encouraging literacy Village schools and charity schools became available soon after They provided children with fundamental education : 3 Rs (Reading, Writing, Arithmetic) 1780s, corporal discipline was acceptable at all levels of society Teachers can hit children, or assistant To help learning must do anything it takes Birth of the schooled society made schooling available not only in schools, but also through work-related activities Found in churches, homes, through apprenticeship, and through services Lecture: Governance and the Law (Sept.2011) Moral Econ
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