HIST 2100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Titus Tatius, Vestal Virgin, Jupiter Indiges
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Livy says: “whether or not his desire to study roman history will reward him, Livy, like many other writers,
writes in hopes of surpassing their predecessor in style, narrative and ability. Even is his writing is
shadowed, he will console himself by saying he went up against the best. Readers may think my histories
as boring, and wish I hurry to modern day issues. He will do everything he can to discover the truth and
cover his eyes to modern day distractions.
Whether or not previous texts on roman history are truthful or not he will not judge. He writes in hopes
that his readers will focus on the morals of the community, the men and qualities of domestic policy and
how it degrades.
History is a good subject to look into as it allows generations to learn and imitate what is good or bad.
Especially the greed and luxury in humans, who only coveted if it benefits them. However, we should
focus on the good more than the bad.”
[1.1] the tale of two men and how they came to Troy. First of the men was Antenor who, with the
combined forces of the Trojans and the Enetians defeated Euganei and took over their land. The land
came to be known as Troy, while the surrounding district was called Venti. Second, Aeneas came to Troy
with his armed forced from Macedonia, Sicily and Laurentian after conquest. In troy he and his men
raided communities. Of one of the territories Aeneas entered was the home of Latinus. A conference
was held between the two men and an alliance was made to prevent war and to form a friendship.
Aeneas was given the hand of Latinus’s daughter where he built a town that he named after his wife.
The gave birth to a son, Ascanius.
[1.2] War occurred between the Trojans and the Aborigines against Turnus, king of the Rutulians. The
war broke out after the betrothed Lavina who was initially betrothed to him was given to Aeneas
instead. Turnus lost and Latinus died in battle. The Rutulians joined forces with Estruscan king,
Mezentius who wished to stop the Trojans rapid growing powers. Aeneas fused the Aborigines and the
Trojans as one nation called Latin to encourage common identity; prevent the Aborigines from
abandoning them. Aeneas took his men into battle against Etruria where he was killed. He was given the
name of “Jupiter Indiges.”
[1.3] Ascanius was not old enough to take over but his throne was secured throughout his life until that
day. During this time, his mother, Lavinia made sure the Latin state was left unimpaired for her son. The
city of Lavinium, where they lived, was so prominent that even after the death of Aeneas, reign of
Lavinia and the immature years if Ascanius’s reign, no neighbour attacked them. The river Tiber was the
line of division between Latin and the Etruscans. Ascanius was succeeded by his son Silvius. The reign of
the town was hereditary. Silvius was a common name given to the king(s) who ruled at the time. The –
father-son and seniority crumbled when Amulius seized the crown of his elder brother who he exiled,
killed his nephew and forced his niece into priesthood (Vestal virgin).
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[1.4] The Vestal virgin was sexually assaulted where she gave birth to twins who she said the father was
Mars (God); truth behind this is questionable. The king sent her to prison and the twins were order to be
thrown into the river. Believing that they had carried out the king’s wishes, left the babies in the water
which was “heaven-sent” to be stagnant. However, the water did not carry them to the main channel (to
be drowned) and instead a she-wolf, Larentia and her husband Faustalus rescued them. The boys grew
up and became pastors; hunted as their hobby.
[1.5] Lupercalia was a festival held on the palatium hill. Evander introduced this festival. Boys ran
around nude for sport in honour of Lycaean Pan. During the festival, two brothers, Romulus and Remus
were ambushed; Romulus defended himself while Remus was captured and handed over to Numitor for
punishment. Faustalus, the man who raised the twin boys, told Romulus that he believed that they
were royalty (by birth), in which Numitor came to the same conclusion too. Amulius and Romulus’s men
declared war and Amulius was killed.
[1.6] Numitor announced to the council of what happened. The twins resumed their position as royalty
and their grandfather, Numitor assumed the position of King (by popular demand). The twins wished to
build a city but problems arose when trying to name the place and who would rule it, so, they consulted
the gods. Romulus got Palatine and Remus for Aventine.
[1.7] Bad omens arose for both brothers that led to a bloodshed and too Remus’s life. The city was
named by him, Romulus, as its founder. He built his city in which Hercules was a sole deity that he
looked up to (tales of Hercules).
[1.8] Romulus established laws. He gave power to 12 lictors; 12 for the number of hawks in told in
prophesy or taken from Etruria and 100 senators (aka Patres and their descendants Patricians). Fortified
the walls, population grew.
[1.9] the roman state’s existence was threatened with the lack of females to produce offspring so
Romulus asked neighbouring nations for alliance and the right to intermarry with their nation. They
decision to do so was refused so Romulus threw a celebration called “the Consualia” that grabbed the
attention of neighbours into the new city, which had rapidly grown. The romans took this chance to grab
a hold of the women. Women and neighbours were angered by the purpose for the festival, but soon
[1.10] the women had reconciled but the parents were still not happy with the outcomes so they gained
help from Tatius, king of Sabines. Impatient of the slow movements made by Tatius, Caenina,
Crustumerium and Antemnae took matters into their own hands. Caenina was the first to attack but
their efforts were futile and their king was slaughtered. Romulus dedicated his winnings to the temple
of Jupiter, the first temple dedicated in Rome. Many wars waged on but the offerings to the temple only
[1.11] Antemnates attacked Rome also but lost to Romulus. His wife, Hersilia suggested that he give
citizenship to the women’s families to increase unity and strength, to which he agreed. Crustuminians’
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efforts were futile; many of the maiden’s families migrated to Rome. Sabines was the most serious of all.
Tatius, of Sabines killed Tarpeius’s daughter and took claim of Rome’s citadel.
[1.12] Mettius Curtius (Sabinian) and Hostius Hostilius (Roman) engaged in a 1-1 battle for the claim of
the citadel. Hostilius lost and the roman line retreated. Romulus asks Jupiter for help, and as if he
believed his prayer was heard, he reassembled his army. As Mettius stood before the romans, insulting
them, Romulus charged at him. His courage encouraged his army to follow, as Mettius retreated, he fell
from his horse. Mettius did successfully get back to the citadel but the battle between the two nations
did break out; Rome was showing more dominance.
[1.13] weary of the war, the Sabine women ran into the middle of the battlefield to knock some sense
into their fathers of one side, and husband of the other:”If you are weary of these ties of kindred, these
marriage-bonds, then turn your anger upon us; it is we who are the cause of the war, it is we who have
wounded and slain our husbands and fathers. Better for us to perish rather than live without one or the
other of you, as widows or as orphans." A treaty was made. Tatius and Romulus ruled with perfect
harmony as kings.
[1.14] king Tatius began to show hostility towards the Laurentines who tried to seek help but it was
useless. Tatius took matters into his own hands to punish the rebels but was killed. Romulus was
unaffected by the event either because he was glad to end the joint ruling or he believe Tatius got what
he deserved. Romulus renewed a treaty between Rome and the Laurentines of Lavinium. Fearful of the
growing power of Rome, Fidenae declared war. Romulus set for Fidenae, an ambush and cavalry men to
attack and were almost successful; enemies tried to flee home but the romans were hot on their tail and
[1.15] The Sister's Beam Veientes and Etruscans came to aid Fidenae. Romulus won the battle against
Veientes; Romulus ravaged the enemies’ lands and in fear, Veientes sent people to Rome to propose
peace – truce for 100 years. Romulus was a great king who ensured peace for his city for 40 years even
after his death. He was popular and idolized. Romulus had with him 300 men (aka Celeres) at all times.
[1.16] Romulus held a meeting for a review of his army at Capras Pales. During which, storm arose and a
enveloped the king into a cloud where he vanished when the storm cleared. The people believed that he
was snatched away but the heavens and was “a god, son of a god, the king and father of the city of
Rome.” There was more than one interpretation of what had happened to Romulus; whether the
heaven snatched him, the senates’ tear him limb by limb. One man, Procilus Julius told the assembly
that Romulus was sent from the heavens and told him “'tell the Romans that it is the will of heaven that
my Rome should be the head of the entire world. Let them henceforth cultivate the arts of war, and let
them know assuredly, and hand down the knowledge to posterity, that no human might can withstand
the arms of Rome.”
[1.17] disputes broke out among the senators about the vacant throne. Parties within the stated
disputed about who should be the next king. To solve the matter, 100 senators were divided into groups
of 10, where 1 from each group (thus only 10 people held office) was to exercise the supreme power for
5 days and then rotated. The working class began to grow restless as they did not have one master but
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