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York University
HIST 2100
Ben Kelly

Andreas Hofer 17671810 Leader of the Tyrolean revolt against Napoleon fought for Austria Organized resistance movements Capturedexecuted becoming a martyr named Tyrols greatest hero Berlin Congress 1884 European powers meetregulate colonization of Africa area belongs to whoever has troops there Belgium king declares Congo Free State personal property Led to scramble for Africa speed up colonization of Africa increase to 90 colonized stCamilo di Cavour 18101861 Italian statesman who played a role in Italian unification Piedmont PM during the second Italian war of independence 1 Italian PM Political maneuver allowed Piedmont to unite Italy and become a great power Committee of Public Safety Beg 1973 Formed to protect the new French republic against threats internalexternal Had special wartime powers over all three government branches Became dictatorship under Robespierreenacted the reign of terror until the Thermidorian Reaction Inspired policies future dictatorships w its reign of terror ie Sovietscitizenconsidered counter revolutionaries if didnt report others stCortes of Cdiz Beg 1810 1 national assembly to claim sovereignty of Spain Created a constitution for Spain Major step in Spanish liberalization and democracy Declaration of the Rights of Woman Indicates the growing feminist movementwomen demands for equality Written by Olympe De Gouges parodying title the rights of manthe citizen to expose failure of the FR revolution to create equality for women thDemographic transition Prev European homeostasis high mortality rates large infant mortality lots of premarital sex Start of 18 century death rates decline followed by birth rates European population grows ththrapidly from the 18 to 20 centuries 4x population rdEstates General Representation of the 3 social classes of france called by Louis XVI in 1789 to deal with countries debt issue Meeting failed so 3 estate peasantscommoners create national assembly and seize control of country causing French Rev thFeminization of religion 19 c Female orders growOffered women role besides marriage stable Observancewomen more prominent in church higher class women w spiritual advisors Friedrich Ludwig Turnvater Jahn German Nationalist wanted to unite Germany Ran gymnasiums to secretly teach nationalistic views Argued that diversitydangerous Prussia at head of united Germany Shows thGerman Nationalist movements that cropped up in the 19 c following the French occupation of German lands led to unification under Bismark stGreek War of Independence 1 successful nationalist uprising Major Europeans didnt act to stop but supported bc vs ottomans supported them Result indep Greeks Christian victory over Muslims inspire polish revolt Karlskoga Peterson fam lived there b4 moving to NA family reps millions Europeans who moved to NA Left bc of agriculture products from US undercutting local goodsoverpopulationlack of workdownward social mobility 3 types migration to urban areas from rural to other countries in Europeto NA Opposition due to lack of workers and soldiers religious concern over the religious freedom in NAdue to nationalism Kulturkampf German political policies to weaken rule of Church in Germany Failed bc united German Catholics Lisbon earthquake 90 earthquake hit Lisbon capital of Portugal destroy city kill 10 thousands 1755 Show 2 imp shaped European thought divine or naturalMarquis de Pombals actions show enlightenment ideas expressed through the use of political power which characterizes enlightened despotism Louis Kossuth 18021894 Lower noble in Hungry became a legal advisor 4 landowners then their rep in the Diet a rep body Gained fame by publicizing records of the Diets meetingswas imprisoned for radical behaviour creating a martyr image of self in Hungarian nationalist view After prison used a newspaper to encourage Hungarian nationalism During the 1848 revolution his speech
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