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HIST 2110 Final: HIST 2110 – Exam Prep

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York University
HIST 2110
Maynard Maidman

HIST 2110 – Exam Prep 04.06.17 Exam Questions Part 3 1. Outline the major stages in the Assyrian administrative system as developed by Tiglath-Pileser III. Give specific examples of these stages, especially from the history of Israel. • First o Early in T-P’s reign, the Israelite King, Menahem, provided tribute voluntarily and was left in peace. Soon after his death, the anti-Assyrian rebel Pekah assassinated Menahem’s son and successor, and seized the throne with the support of Damascus and of Israel’s population that resented the heavy tribute payments. In 734, T-P campaigned along the Syrian coast and turned the regions there into provinces ▪ The neighbor to Assyria will pay voluntary yearly tribute (money, goods, labor, taxation) to the Assyrian state in return for defense against enemies ▪ Failure to pay this results in stage 2 • Second o Tiglath-Pileser III claims that the people of Israel overthrew Pekah and replaced him with a pro-Assyrian ruler, Hoshea (attested in the II Kings) ▪ Punishment by Assyria against that neighboring state; military punishment results in tribute being brought to Assyria involuntarily but annually and in greater quantities ▪ Assyria will annex part of that neighboring state so that those individuals who are living in this area are now Assyrian citizens and have all those citizen rights; territory is under direct control of the Assyrian crown ▪ The neighbor remains a monarchy/political entity; the monarch that failed to pay the tribute will be displaced and a puppet ruler more amenable to Assyrian wishes is placed on the throne ▪ An Assyrian military garrison is placed in the neighboring territory ▪ The most important element of this second stage is the imposition of a treaty relationship between Assyria and the puppet ruler • Has a historical prologue (“I… King of Assyria, my ancestors did good things for this country…) followed by stipulations (taxes, if an Assyrian fugitive tries to find refuge, they will be expedited) and then comes the warning against anyone who breaks the treaty with the threat of facing the god’s (Marduk and his son Nabu, others) wrath • The puppet ruler doesn’t want to be a puppet and revolts by again failing to pay taxes and violation of the treaty, leads to stage 3 • Third o But later, Hoshea stopped paying tribute. This triggered retaliation by Shalmaneser V, who laid siege to Israel’s capital for three years and conquered it just before his death. His successor, Sargon II, claimed victory for himself and turned the region into the province of Samaria (attested in the II Kings) ▪ Massive destruction by the Assyrian army, the Assyrian army has no choice because the stipulations decree that the gods will punish those that violate the treaty; if the Assyrian army lets that violating nation go, then the anger and the wrath of the gods is transferred to Assyria because it means that Assyria doesn’t take the treaty seriously; mutual blackmail/intimidation; to preserve themselves 2 they have to destroy the violators of the treaty; the idea of divine punishment and the effect that has is very serious ▪ Left the infrastructure intact in the neighboring state, left it to be as productive as it was before, won’t commit economic suicide ▪ Deportations have potential to do harm to Assyria ▪ If you depopulate the offending state, no one will do the work; so, they recycle deported populations from elsewhere and an Assyrian governor is imposed and citizenship is given to everyone 2. Describe the ethnic movements at the end of the Late Bronze Age as given in the Illyrian Hypothesis. Then describe three examples of the interactions between any of these “new” Iron-Age peoples either with each other or with one of the “older” peoples of the Near East • Illyrian Hypothesis  a group whose existence is not attested; the Illyrians are not the name of the people whom we’re hypothesizing what we do hypothesize is that they end up in an area called Illyria o Around 1200 BC, there are convulsions all around the Near East causing mass migration of people that speak Indo-European languages, of which, the Illyrians are a sub-group o This hypothesis demands the assumption that one group comes in and displaces another, however, that might not always be the case, so… o The Illyrians come in and displace an unknown group to Thrace and Phrygia (Thraco-Phrygians) ▪ The Thraco-Phrygians then move into Anatolia and destroy the Hittite state – known from correspondences of Hattusa and Ugarit talking about an invading force coming from the direction of Cyprus o They also displace people from south eastern Europe into Greece: Dorians, Aeolians, Ionians (old Greeks, have their own Greek dialect and art) who arrive in mainland Greece in 1200 BC 3 ▪ Homer discusses the destruction of Troy as a result of an invasion of Greeks, may be a direct link to the Trojan War o As these groups displace people in Greece, so too are the Aegean people on the coast of Greece and the Mediterranean displaced (known as the Sea People); these people then invaded and encountered Egypt ▪ 1390: Amenhotep III (vs. Lukka, Serden, Danuna, Meswes) ▪ 1209: Merneptah (vs. Lukka, Serden, Meswes) ▪ 1181 & 1187: Rameses III (vs. Lukka, Serden, Peleset) Part 4 1. Outline the major events, persons, and characteristics of the early Neo- th th Assyrian empire (9 century BC) an
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