THE PAPACY IN THE HIGH MEDIEVAL PERIOD
New dynamics of institutionalization, consolidation, administration, law, and bureaucracy
13th Century sometimes seen as the Medieval century because of these new dynamics
The High Medieval period (12th, 13th, 14th centuries) - the point when the Papacy was at the height of power and popularity
Investiture controversy - big boost in Pope's power and visibility in the 12th and 13th centuries
Developing Institutions and Bureaucracies:
This institution is set up in the late 11th century
These are the Pope's "right-hand men"
In this period, there are 10 to 50 Cardinals at any given time
More to come in the 12th and 13th centuries!
o The "Conclave" starts in 1268 - means that the "key" idea is to lock the Cardinals in a room until they elect a new Pope
o The "Camera" - means treasury... in 1192, Papal officials make the first listing of all their revenues (this is the first time any Medieval
government has done this!)
o Papal "Curia" - means Papal Court
The Papal Curia and the Chief Powers of the Pope
o "Big Stick" Powers are more famous (i.e. calling for crusades, excommunicating people, etc.)
o But Chief Power derives from the writing of the Law
o 12th and 13th Centuries = The Age of Law (almost every group making laws for themselves)
o Church has its own law - CANON LAW (from the Latin word meaning to "rule")
o Canon Law organized by a monk named Gratian in the 1140's in his book called "Decretum"
o But laws need updating and new problems always come up - so, who will take charge of this??
o The Pope becomes "Chief Legislator" AND the "Chief Appeals Judge" of the entire Church (in the 12th Century)
o IMPORTANT! - The Pope gets his power because people want to give him power; there is a great need and desire for a final
authority (i.e. people come to him with their problems and ask him to rule)
o The Pope then spends much of his day hearing cases, hence the name "The Lawyer Pope"
o The usual procedure... (See Handout from October 27th with image of these hearings)
o The results: an incredible increase in the issue of Papal Bulls and Judgements (Latin: "Bulla" means "lead seal")
What do Popes do with this Power? The Case of Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)
o Innocent as Chief Appeals Judge (i.e. power politics of this role: the big dispute over the election of the Archbishop of Canterbury)
o In 1205, people travelled from England to Rome to ask for help on choosing the Archbishop...
o Innocent III says: "Neither of your choices!" ... and he appoints his own choice - an old college friend of his.
o King John is outraged by this decision
o Innocent III retaliates by putting England under "Interdict", which lasts until 1214
o King John eventually gives in and in fact he agrees to even be the Popes vassal!
o But, Innocent III is also ruling on problems like those of Peter Timosus (See Handout: other side of image - Oct. 27th)
o Innocent III as Chief Legislator - he convenes "The Fourth Lateran Council" in 1215
o The largest, busiest, and most imposing gathering of clerics since the Council of Nicaea in 325
400 Bishops, 800 Abbots, and more to come to Rome to rubber-stamp Innocent III decrees...
Idea is to codify reform and define church doctrine
In the "70 Canons", there is a lot about Priests...
Must be celibate
Must not be incompetent
Must not be drunkards
Must wear the right clothes (i.e. no red, no green, etc...)
Defines the 7 Sacraments for the first time
Declares that Jews must wear a yellow badge (this was revoked shortly thereafter...but sounds familiar, huh??)
o Innocent III sees himself as the one who decides who is in Christianity and who is not
o He calls a crusade against the Cather Heretics in southern France
o He also decides that Francis of Assisi is OK...
FRANCIS OF ASSISI AND THE FRIARS
Friar = old French word for "brother"; there are two kinds of Friars...
o Franciscans ("Grey Friars")
o Dominicans (Black Friars")
o The ideal of the Cistercians is to live the true monastic life - reflects a rural and reforming worldview
o The ideal of the Friars is to live the life of Christ - reflects the worldview of the 13th century; concerns urban life, money, heresy,
university, religious life of the laity, etc...
Removed from the world
Enclosed/stay put in their monastery
Rural, the "woods"
Prayer/Labour Money from land and lay-brother labour
Conversion of manners
Live in the world
Urban - towns and cities
Money from begging - "Mendicants" (from Latin "Mendicare" meaning "to beg")
Francis of Assisi (c. 1181-1226) and the Franciscans
o Genesis of the Order in the ideals and actions of Francis
o Son of a wealthy Italian cloth merchant
o Francis had a brief unremarkable career as a crusader
o In his early 20's he has an intense religious transformation
o He renounces he inheritance and career... and strips naked in the public square!
o He lives by begging, tends to lepers, sings, prays, talks with animals, writes prayers about...
"Brother Sun, Sister Moon, Brother Fire, Sister Mother Earth, Brothers Wind and Fire, Sister Water.." etc...
o Francis the decides that he should preach
o Remember! He is not a priest... only has minimal education, so he goes to the Pope to ask permission to preach
NOTE: Francis is not the first to do all of this... Peter Waldo also lived by begging and wants to preach (1160's)
1179, Pope Alexander III tells Waldo "No!"... his group becomes radicalized and a heretical group known as the
Waldensians is created...
o When Francis comes to Rome in 1209, Innocent III is Pope
o He decides to say "Yes!" to Francis
o Francis and his followers can preach now and so they form a new religious order
o Poverty, above all! Own nothing - Trust in God!
No food for tomorrow!
No spare clothes!
...And don't even TOUCH money!
o Wildly popular ideas!
o In 1209, Francis has 12 followers...
o By the end of the 13 C. Every town and city in Latin Christendom has "Friars Minor" ("little brothers") preaching repentance
o But! With spread and popularity comes problems...
o Francis is not a planner!
o He does however write a Rule (reluctantly) and it is short and unspecific
o Educated men and critics who want to continue to study and perform sacraments join up
o PROBLEM: Can't do this when you can't own any books, etc!)
Dominic (1170 - 1221) and the Dominicans
o Dominic is a well educated Canon (a priest serving a cathedral, which is a job with income attached to it)
o But Dominic wants to be an evangelist and preacher, especially disturbed when he comes across the Cathar Heretics in Southern
o He is confident that good information = the end of heresy
o Innocent III charges Dominic to preach in 1205 and in 1215, he is given formal approval for a new order
o They too adopt begging, but focus is a scholarly kind of preaching
o Dominicans = "Order or Preachers"
o Think university education and study is CRUCIAL
o Soon, many university masters are Dominicans (i.e. Thomas Aquinas [d.1274] is one of the most famous ones)
o Will preach to heretics and pagans far and wide but they are not terribly successful (in most cities, too)
o In time, Franciscans become for like Dominicans
o Create legal fiction so they can own property ("we'll use it, but the Pope owns it!")
o Most becomthprieststhand they too stress education th
o In the 14 and 15 C. anger grows against some Friars - too rich! Too lax! ...Get rich because concept works so well! (in 13 C. -
o Women Friars?! YES! ...But growth is limited - they can't preach, can't be mobile, can't be poor (the idea of a woman who is poor/a
beggar = prostitute in Medieval times...) They end up being like Benedictine or Cistercian nuns
Enclosed, endowed, praying and tenuous support from brethren...
KING, ASSEMBLY, BUREAUCRACY...
"The central middle ages witnessed major political changes