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HIST 2500
William Wicken

History Study Notes St Lawrence Valley: Identify: This is the area where the first French settlement is establishment in the early 1600s person responsible for the settlement was Champlain St Lawrence River, exists out into the north/east Atlanta First French settlement establishment in 1600s First permanent settlement 1608 (stay over winter there) Significance: Champlain wanted to extend the French influence to native people Became allied with aboriginal people, could travel further into the St. Lawrence Valley Valley itself operates as an exit point, entrance to the interior of Canada Gives the French access to the interior of North America ACCESS POINT, things go in this way and out this way Because of the valley itself, it is fertile land on either side of the river French establish a permanent settlement, vibrant agricultural community At the time the French establish their settlements there, it already has been depopulated aboriginal communities Cod: Identify: Fish, Salt water fish, lives in the ocean Swims in schools, swarms of schools Found off the coast of Atlantic Canada, north east Atlantic, off the coast of Newfoundland This is where Cod is found in large quantities Significance: Bask and French fisherman, Catholics eat the fish, English first settles to go fishing for Cod Main supply for the slaves down south Late 1400s early 1500s Feeding this market in southern Europe Becomes an important food source for the growing slave population found in the Caribbean from the mid-1600s Abundant and stable export which fuels new Frances, and British North America, Important export like fur and timber. Staple resource Metis: Identify: Offspring of French traders, and aboriginal women Scott and English traders of the Hudson Bay company Where: In the West, along the river in Saskatoon Significance: Fur Trade Form a distinct community, occupy Fur market Transition Helped the Europeans map the west, river systems, buffalo and fish as well, emergence of French and Cree language Prevarors of penacin Some of the first permanent settlers in the prairies, farming and working in the fur trade Responsible Government Identify: Where the executive is responsible for its actions to the assembly Executive Councils Ability to have an election and general assembly Significance: Relates to the Rebellion Lower and upper Canada French nationalists and English Canadian (Methodists) combating against how British north America is acting as a government Durham’s report: issues in 1839, recommends a responsible government Becomes the beginning of the march towards confederation and unifications of lower and upper Canada Creation of the Cabinet, and how our government today is established Identify: People that are elected by the public (Rebels wanted a responsible government) Rebellions do not win the fight for a responsible government War lasted from 1837-38 (Upper and Lower Canada unite) Significance: Seigneurial dues Identify: New France, along the St. Lawrence Long narrow strips of land Habitant farmers, don’t own the land, where farmers on the land Rent land from Seigneurs (Seigneurs live in France, or in the cities) Seigneurs are the elites of Europe, land is given to them Rentes to seigneurs, moneys go to the church Percentage of the crop was used to pay for the land Significance: No room for social mobility Example of colonialism Subsistence farming Compare it to Arcadia (Farming structure) Patrons rebellion 1837-38 1837-8 Rebellion in Lower Canada (Greer) Identify: Lower Canada 1837-38 (Quebec) Cheatu Clique = Small ruling group Fighting again ^ Patriots lead by Papineau (leader of the lower Canada rebellion Numerous small battles took place Rebels put down easily by the government Fighting for responsible government, the people wanted a voice There are deaths Acknowledge that there was two rebellions Significance Durham report (1839) Should be a responsible government in Canada United Canada Political deadlock leads to confederation Fur trade Identify: Staple Resource Significance: Acadian-Mi’kmaq relations (Wicken) Identify: - Acadian-Mi’kmaq had casual relations or intermarriages - 1632 – close trading relationships developed between individual Acadian and Mi’kmaq families - Importance of trade in the 17 century - Communication was enhanced between the two groups - Economic, social, and cultural ties created in the early 17 century - Bay of Fundy where Acadian population concentrated, Mi’kmaq located at bay Sainte Marie - Mi’kmaq = Hunters, fishers Acadians = Farmers Significance: - Conflicts erupted over Acadian use of land and Mi’kmaq use of livestock owned by colonists - French realize alliance with Mi’kmaq wouls promote French strategic interest in region - As conflict between English and French intensified in 1740, tension between Acadian and Mi’kmaq grew - - Acadian deportation Identify: - Executive council of Nova Scotia requested that all Acadians take an oath of allegiance. - They refused resulted in the Acadian people being expelled from their land - British expelled 10,000 Acadians from Acadia - In 1755 Significance: - British are able to fortify their position in the Maritimes while English settlements moved in - 1760s British population flourished in Nova Scotia - Lead to the treaty of Paris 1763, British policy permitted Acadian resettlment - Hudson’s Bay Company Identify: - Established in 1670 by the English - Control of the region until 1713 - Significance: - Fur trade stabilized under the Hudson’s Bay Company - Ohio Valley Identify: Near the great lakes, access to St. Lawrence River Fur trade existed here, - Military posts existed to protect the fur trade - Aboriginal community, pushed out by the British after the war of 1812 Significance: - Establishment of the reserve system in Canada - Grand river reserve is created - Last time the aboriginal communities ally with the British Louisbourg Identify: Cape Briton Island, North east corner of the coast French Colony, part of New France Built as a fortress, to defend entry into the St. Lawrence river, 1719 Most important trading posts in Eastern north America Significance: Eastern points settlements that the French had in Canada, Military fortress, Guards to entrance to the St. Lawrence, Port/fortress French wants to protect the COD fishery Captured in 1745, returned in 1748 and permanently captured in 1758 Battle ground, British attempt to take over 2 times, the final take over is the beginning of the destruction of New France One of the largest towns in eastern North America Iroquois Confederacy (otherwise known as the League of the Houdenosaunee or Five Nations) Royal Proclamation of 1763 War of 1812 Identify: British Vs. Yankees (Americans) British burnt down the white house Americans wanted to invade Canada Significance: Last time Aboriginal people are allies with the British Susanna Moodie Identify: 1803-85 One of the Strickland Sisters Wrote a book based on being an immigrant in Canada (classic) “Roughing It in the Bush or Forest life in Canada” Wrote about her experiences as a pioneer in Canada Significance: Show people oversees how life was in Canada Discouraged the pioneer lifestyle Railways Identify: After 1775 steam engine for trains to go great distances Economic development Transporting good and people (at a cheaper rate) Developed in England Railways where built in British north America prior to 1867 in each of the colonies, beginning in the 1840s Significance: Leads to confederation Connects Western Canada to Eastern Provinces Internal market, import and export items internally Access regions that couldn’t be accessed previously (example, British North America, travel was costly) Provides Access, cheap transportation, cost per unit Canada enters into a global international market Stocks in the railway, loaning the capital investment to build the railroads (1840s-50s) In order to build those railways, they lead to confederation to use outside capital to build railways Captured market, for the mother country and for the colony itself Executive Council Identify: Significance: Charlottetown Conference Identify: September 1864 - Discussed maritime union - Abstract support for unification with Canada - Most influential Politian in the province of Canada meet - John A McDonald, Cartier - Population could balance that of English Canada west - End of political stalemate - McDonald worries about American aggression, together they can resist their powerful neighbor - 8 cabinet ministers, 3 secretaries - Build a railway from Atlantic – Pacific Significance: - Lead to confederation in 1867 - Constitutional economy - Advantages of union, terms till need to be met before confederation could be made - Nation-building British North America Act of 1867 Identify: Unification of upper and Lower Canada - Government of Canada is formed Significance: Samuel de Champlain Identify: Born in about 1570, Town: Brouage, South France – Founder of New France Father was a ship owner, lived in a wealthy family, gave him opportunity Died in 1635, Left 6 volumes of his writing as well as maps/drawings of the region Colonized the new world Significance: Arrived in the St. Lawrence Valley 1608. He wrote the first descriptions of indigenous people Champlain wants to trade and establish relationships with aboriginal people He was in search of gold/silver (used indigenous people to find these materials) He decided liquid gold would make him rich Champlain learned to speak the aboriginal language Champlain encounters Huron and Haudenosaunee Seven Years War Identify: - French allied with aboriginal people in ohio country, sovereignty over region came to head - 1749 French military expedition - British allied with Loyalists who came from America - British want the resources, territory and want to take over the fur trade - Land takeover (Ohio Valley) Significance: - 1763 end of the seven year war, French surrender to the British - New france surrendered and control “changed hands” from French dominance to British dominance. Increasing British dominance in former French colonies after the seven years war took a toll on the remaining French population - Acadians forcibly revoked from Nova Scotia and Louisburg had been caputured - Racism against the French began during this time - Strengthening of slavery in Canada - Last war between French and Britain over America Jean de Brebeuf Identify: Born 1593-1649 French Missionary. Sent to live with Huron people in 1630 and 1640, to bring them the message of god (Christian god) Needed to correct the savage people Interested in money and establishing a permanent residence Significance: Christianity and trade go hand in hand Devious method to implement Christian idea’s into indigenous societies. Enforcing reformation: Meaning reform to correct Missionaries brought diseases (smallpox) into indigenous communities killing their people Smallpox, Measles, Whooping cough, Scarlet Fever Molly Brant Identify: Born in 1736, was a Mohawk woman Cultural mediator between the Mohawk and British Has 8 children Has a relationship with Sir William Johnson: Immigrates to Mohawk valley in 1938, trades fur and ginseng When Johnsons wife dies, she moves into his estate Has status/security for her children, Johnson dies in 1774 At 38 Molly received half his estate By 1777 Molly flees northward because of American rebellion Significance: Molly Brant and her brother occupy a multi-ethnic multi-cultural area and are able to maintain sovernty over their territory - Brants life story illustrates heterogeneous relationships, women had a place within these societies. Loyalists Identify: Black, Aboriginal and white loyalists that came to Canada during the American Revolution People who lived in the 13 colonies who supported the crown not the rebels Most loyalists went to Ontario and Nova Scotia Loyalists needed to get rid of the dominating French groups in Quebec Black loyalists promises free land for fighting alongside the British, took them years to get the land, they got shit land, small tracks of land, very rocky and not farmable. White loyalists got land quickly, good farm land and lots of it Significance: The British wanted the loyalists to help them fight the French, so they can take over Quebec and the fur trade In 1763 end of the seven year war, French surrender to Great Britain. Laws are put in place to segregate aboriginal communities from the British Black loyalists and aboriginal communities are treated poorly after the Seven Year War Constitution Act: George Brown: Identify: 1818-80, Born in Alloa Scotland Founded the Toronto Globe in 1844 Travelled to north America with his father, who was also a journalist George known as a reformist His paper a force to be reckoned with, new technology, detailed coverage, branch office in London Significance: Supported abolition of the clergy reserves, Voluntarism in religion and public education. Elected into Canadia legislature in 1851 Chief spokesperson for English-speaking communities of Canada West 1857 found himself the unofficial leader of reform in western Canada Form new government in early 1858 in alliance with the rouges – result political instability Wanted a new british American federal union calling for collation of government in Canada committed to this achievement Delegates at charlotte town how new c
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