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History 2500 Mid - Term Exam Outline.docx

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HIST 2500
William Wicken

Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam Students must identify & give significance for 5 of 10 terms - 10 terms will be selected from list. Maximum of 2 marks for the identity & maximum of 4 marks for significance. social, economic & political implications of the term Part A: 30% St. Lawrence Valley (page 30) - Was the center of New France - Samuel de Champlain headed up the St. Lawrence in 1608 to find a new trading post - Established his base - The St. Lawrence - French need for new sources of furs to supply the major export commodity of New France - Significance: The Saint Lawrence River served as the main route for European exploration of the North American interior, first pioneered by French explorer Samuel de Champlain. Control of the river was crucial to British strategy to capture New France in the Seven Years' War Cod (oct 10) - found in the Atlantic region - motor of new frances economy - cod and the fur - valuable economic commodity in the area of Nova Scotia - A dried cod market developed in Europe (salted the fish, put onto ships) - The North American east coast developed in part due to the vast cod stocks - Many cities in the New England area are located near cod fishing grounds - Significance: Cod created trade networks & cross cultural exchanges & fed slaves; their labour produced the capitol necessary for investment into capital for new technologies, etc. Cod was an affordable fish to eat in Europe since there was such a high supply of it available Metis - Aboriginal women and French men - mixed - Often merchants who travelled for fur trade wouldn’t return, instead would intermarry with aboriginal women - This was against the fur trade agreement - Significance: Metis were peoples who are a product of intermarriage & occupy a particular niche in the fur trade. ’Mixed bloods’ – intermarriage products. Against the fur trade agreement but found love in a hopeless place Responsible government (1837-8) - Canada was a dependency of Great Britain – actions had to be consistent with Britain and therefore, could not be democratic but Rebellions had the vision of political change - Groups of wealthy businessmen and landowners were appointed to the governing cabinets of each colony (the Executive Councils) by the governor, usually through social connections, etc. - Responsible government would give legislative power to elected assemblies - In order to have a responsible government it meant that the Executive Council had to maintain support of a majority of members of the House of Assembly to govern the province - They decided to have a federal government of both colonies (Upper & Lower) that have equal number of parties in 1 government - leader of a political party (held elected majority in the legislative assembly) would govern the executive council - That lead would appoint the members of executive council - The responsible government, would diminish the governors powers - Governments followed one another in rapid succession - Both colonies (Upper and Lower Canada) agitate for reform - This achievement lead to political instability that lasted until confederation 1867 - Government legislation was to be controlled by the majority in a elected assembly no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 1 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam - Significance: This marked an important milestone on the road to democracy in Canada. Essentially there was no choice but to create a bigger government. The building of rail road’s was only possible through government revenue. British North America would die without rail roads Seigneurial dues (p.57): - The seigneurial system was a form of land settlement modelled on the French feudal system - Agriculture was dominant form of economic activity along the St. Lawrence, functioning around Seigneurial System brought to the valley in 1627 - The King owned the land in New France, he granted the use of the land to the people who became seigneurs - The land was divided into long narrow lots that had access to both farmland and the river - The state made property concessions to landlords, who were suppose to find settlers to serve as tenants - The Seigneurial system did encourage family farms on small holdings - The habitants of the land were to pay taxes or dues to the seigneur, farm the land, give a percentage of their produce to the seigneur annually, provide 3 to 5 days of unpaid labour, etc. - The concern for modernization led to the elimination of the seigneurial system in the St. Lawrence Valley by legislative fiat (page 172) - A bill replaced traditional seigneurial obligations with a “quit rent” which gave tenants the opportunity to purchase their lands - Significance: The habitants of the land were being burdened with the many taxes and dues that they were expected to pay. With the elimination of the system, they were able to become more independent 1837-8 Rebellion in Lower Canada (Greer) (nov 21): - The Rebellions of 1837-8 were two armed uprisings in Lower & Upper Canada - Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform - A key shared goal was Responsible Government, which was eventually achieved in the incidents' aftermath - Important to know that it was a rebellion of the middle class (upper C.) (support from farmers, labourers mostly) - Lower C. was a population of Anglo and French Canadians; Middle class (lawyers, etc. also Catholic) - The rebellions marked the first of the movements in Canadian history to decentralize authority & political power - Lord Durham made recommendations for the union of the Canadas and for Responsible government in his famous “Report on the Affairs in British America”(1839) - Significance: Upper and Lower C. were united. Assimilation of French-Canada. Set the stage for Confederation. Responsible government, centralized; elected rather than appointed. In Greer’s article, he outlines contesting ways the Rebellion has been written about; Both English and French Historians differ in their interpretations by not seeing it as one political movement; either upper or lower C. Due to the struggle between Anglo and Franco Canadians, it will effect how history is written; it is an intertwined issue. The French Canadians have a larger struggle in retaining their culture; everything is English dominated (religion, language, etc) Fur trade (Oct 10/Nov 7): - Begins in late 1500s offshore but is est. onshore by early 1600s; first along the Atlantic coast and then at Quebec. - Europeans want warm furs from the north - The fur trade motors new france economy & means to which french maintain control over st. lawerence area - french motivation - Many were happy to trade furs for financial security and military aid - beaver furs was most prized fur - aboriginal traded for mainly domestic items (pots, knives, hatchets, cloth, beads, guns) - Metis: are distinct peoples product of intermarriage & occupy a niche in the fur trade; north and west of Montreal. no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 2 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam - Cree & Ojibwe traded as they‘re in direct route of hudson bay trade route & st. lawerence trade route to england - Wives would skin and dry the fur which is a long process, where males would shoot the animal - Next decade wars were mainly catholic vs aboriginal fighting for control of fur trade - Alexander MacKenzie example of a fur trader (beaver furs to hats) - women who marry aboriginal fur traders were adapt and prefer other necessary functions with alliance or marriages with fur traders—-providing them to access of food - trading: hudson bay company blankets to aboriginal people in this region - manufactured goods in great britian were traded & made according to needs / demands of aboriginals at this time - Significance: provided a new found economy and created relations between the european traders and aboriginal people. European markets first glance at opening towards the aboriginal people. Beginnings of trusts between the people as furs were needed for climate purposes and recreational (beaver hats) and aboriginals learned to use domestic pieces like pots and guns Acadian-Mi‘kmaq relations (Wicken) - Acadians - French framers from Northern France - near the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia (very valuable farming lands)- Mainly Livestock - Population of natural increase of 3.37 percent annually - Large numbers (good nutrition, low infant and child mortality, women pregnant on average every 2 years) - Mi’kmaq - Fishers that lived in the coastline and migrate into the interior - Acadian-Mi’kmaq relations - Historians have made cultural assumptions on intermarriage between the two groups - Intermarriage is more likely to occur when only men are present and women are willing to marry them and household economies are similar - They probably needed to communicate in the same language, have the same religious views, ideas about bodies, values, etc. - They had different life styles - Acadians had a large population – men did not need to seek women among other communities - They had different lifestyles – Mi’kmaq women were accustomed to fishing and hunting and most likely had no concept of how to perform tasks in which Acadian people did (example: milking cows) - Early years of Acadian settlement – existed intermarriage and intersecting of lives (which established kinship ties between the two communities) - History bound individuals and families linking them within a common heritage in place and time - There were tensions between the two communities due to the conflicts between England and France - Significance: Sometimes intermarried. Acadians had a larger population. Different life style as acadians were farmers and mi’kmaq were fishers and hunters. Acadians did not know how to preform aboriginal deeds like milking cows. Tension arose between the groups when english and french wars began but history shows they may have came from same heritage / kinship ties. Acadian deportation (oct 10) - Deportation: - The forced removal of the Acadian people (French) by the British during the Seven Years War - The Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain; the council expelled the Acadians, as well as distributing them to several British colonies in the south - In 1754, a desperate struggle for the allegiance of the Aboriginal peoples and for sovereignty over the region came to a head - The French in 1752 built military posts in the area, but in the next year the British sent George no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 3 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam Washington to deliver a letter to the French commandment claiming the Ohio Valley and requesting the French to leave (they refused) - The British decided to expel neutral Acadians from the land in Nova Scotia, and Louisbourg was captured - Significance: Along with the British achieving their military goals of defeating Louisbourg and weakening the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias, the result of the Expulsion was the devastation of both a primarily civilian population and the economy of the region. The locus of power was about to shift, from the French to the British in North America Hudson‘s Bay Company - elite, like kurke family, invested in hudson bay company - 1670 hudson bay company monopoly over the region drained by all rivers and streams flowing into hudson bay in northern canada (ruperts land) - first nation trappers in fall & winter sold goods for knives, beads, hudson bay blanket - hudson bay company as custodian of all british interest in west - 1713 british had claim over hudson bay (won over france) - 1838 british government had extended the hudsons bay company monopoly over the west for 21 years - Significance: One of the three main companies in the trade business (north west company & american fur were other two). Mainly used by french & english as their avenue of trade. Company specialized in their token blanket. Retained monopoly over the area & was known meeting place for aboriginal & european interaction / trade. Fur trade and fishing was backbone of Canadian economy which was mainly produced with the company. Ohio Valley - native refugees settled in this area - continued trades among native and european traders - Struggle between european & french for allegiance of aboriginal peoples in ohio valley and for sovereignty over the region came to a head in seven year war - Movement by the French into the ohio valley, sparks war - Washington and Jefferson will become involved in this area of ohio valley, militarily and land speculators - the idea that the Ohio could be taken from the French and would provide land-hungry farmers with the chance to move in and start claiming land was a huge draw. - United states had used the war of 1812 to solidify its control of the middle ground in Ohio valley and to push the aboriginals farther towards the margins - After war Britian prohibited British Colonists from settling in the Ohio and claiming lands to limit the causes of further conflict with the Tribes, and to keep the Colonists dependent on Britain. - Significance: Many native civilizations formed in this area for the english and french to fight control over. The land was good farming area which europeans wanted access too (resulting in wars and pushing of aboriginals to margins). Continue colonization of forcing the movement of indigenous groups. Ohio Valley had water way access and was perfect hunting ground. Louisbourg - After 1713 the French built a large fortress at Louisbourg on the southeastern coast - In 1716 Louisbourg contained about 600 people, mainly fishermen from Placentia in Newfoundland, which had been evacuated - After 1720 it grew rapidly as the French government fortified the town, made it a fortress, and employed it as the military and economic nerve centre of the Atlantic region - By 1734 the townsite was surrounded by walls on three sides, with impressive gates (the fortifications were never completed – poorly located and built) - Louisbourg in its prime was also an important naval station harbouring French warships as well as fishing vessels - The fortress was attacked in 1745 by a joint Anglo-American force no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 4 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam - The fortress surrendered, but then returned to France in 1748 at the Treaty of Aixla-Chapelle in exchange for Madras in India - Despite reinforcements, it fell quickly to the British again in 1758 - Significance: The British’s takeover of Louisbourg was part of Britain’s plan in order for them to conquer New France. The French were now vulnerable due to supply lines being cut. The fall of the fortress led the loss of French territory across Atlantic Canada. The loss of Louisbourg deprived Quebec and New France of naval protection, opening the Saint Lawrence to attack Iroquois Confederacy (otherwise known as the League of the Houdenosaunee or Five Nations) - Union between five different nations: Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawak. - from mohawk river to genesse river - controlled major routes from coast to interior - Each kept its own territory, languages, and culture - A leader persuaded each nation to accept the peace between all nations and in turn, established a governments that allowed the nations to work together respectively - Within the confederacy, each nation had a role - men clears fields, women did farming Royal Proclamation of 1763 - document that set out guidelines for European settlement of Aboriginal territories - Issued by King George III in order to officially claim British territory after the seven years war - The purpose was to organize Great Britain’s new North American Empire - Also, to establish relations with Natives, including trade regulation etc. - Now that we have obtained sovereignty over New France they needed to set up some barriers - Toronto and surrounding areas – Indian hunting grounds (no settlement allowed unless, purchased through Indians or through the permission of Majesty officers) - One reason leading to the American revolution - Despite proclamation – theres still settlements on Mohawk lands, which interfere with their territory, hunting War of 1812 (Nov 7) (Page 113) - americans declared war on great Britain june 18, 1812 because: (1) british attacked american ships and took all british onboard to help their navy, (2) Britain failure to abandon the Ohio valley, where military posts continued to monitor the fur trade (3) americans coveted canada and proceed to invade 1812 and 1813 - aboriginal supported british and were not trained well to fight - united states had used the war to solidify its control of the middle ground in Ohio valley and to push the aboriginals farther towards the margins - naval war on great lakes from 1812-1814 which americans typically won - atlantic ocean had battles between individual american & British naval vessels, which americans usually won - british won war of prizes on land - americans treated war of 1812 as second war of independence (necessary struggle of separation from mother country) - british saw it as sideshow to napoleon in Europe - british america saw it as an opportunity to serve as a conduit for illicit trade between Britain and united states - Britain had more supporters and allegiance compared to US - both united states and great Britain would endeavour not only to end hostilities with the native peoples but forthwith to restore such tribes or nations respectively all possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in 1811, previous to such hostilities - war of 1812 ended in a draw as they realized they were fighting a stalemate no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 5 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam - Significance: Britain and indigenous didnt allow US to take over Canada and further demonstrated Britian‘s loyalists, in comparison to American as well as indigenous loyalty to the British. Susanna Moodie - Born: middle class family in England - Highly educated - Susanna and her family were caught in the movement of industrialization & financial problems so move to BNA - Author, who wrote about her experiences as an English settler - ―Roughing it in the Bush‖ 1854 (Describes her life in the area around Peterborough in 1830s and 1840s) - It was common for a women to be illiterate during this time and she had been able to document her experiences - Joined Methodist church: Isolates her but provides her opportunities into contact with others & Personal relationship with God - Married John Dunbar Moodie - Her husband, sister and sisters husband decided to move to BNA for more opportunities - Expensive and time consuming to clear lands, so not what they expected - move in with her sister Catherine in Upper Canada - Significance:Transportation networks were limited, movement was common, lead the government to seek land surrender agreements, importance of social & political connections. Land was not ideal & ready for homes Railways (Dec 5): - creation of railway to make it a unified nation of colonies and create transcontinental free trade zone (economic linking of cities and towns in a new way) - atlantic provinces sought to expand transportation links with canada (railways) in terms of transatlantic linkages - province of canada saw railways as a means of continual destinations rather than as transatlantic linkages - must move metis in winnipeg to build railway - railway makes it possible to transport goods to and from this region - possible to make area commercially viable & bring settlers into region & export anything they produce — wheat - 1858 this idea by cartier and president of grand truck railway alexander gold(?) - approach maritimes region and see if they want in on railway idea — wont reply until 1864 - true british people dont support the railway because dont want unification - individual colonies cannot fund these big capital ideas themselves and loans necessary to build railways - guarantee act - 6% return if you invest in railway - if they dont produce a railway they wont earn capital from the cross canada trade as well will lose land for settlers forcing them into the US - benefit montreal commercial products and dont want US to get their goods - with railway we let middle men take profit (by funnelling goods through toronto and not through buffalo into NY) - canadian rail way expansion 1850, after complete demolition of the old imperial trade system - growth of industrialization — the introduction of manufacturing and related commerce on a large scale made labour relations and increasingly important issues in british north america - Significance: The birth of the idea of railways not only unified the colonies in canada, providing ways of transportation of goods cross canada, but also created access to land not available previously for settlers. Access to parries and wheat through railway. Investors to come together to invest and also produce labour to help build the railway. Industrialization grows and a new economy produces cross colonies with new goods. Executive Council : - The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly - Members of this council were appointed - The Council was dissolved on 10 February 1841 when Upper Canada and Lower Canada were united - It was replaced by the Executive Council of the Province of Canada the same year no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 6 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam - Significance: The Executive Council was one of the accomplishments of the British North America Act. Second level of government was needed; provincial. Local concerns go to provincial. There is now a division of responsibilities Charlottetown Conference (Dec 5) - Lower and Upper Canada, Nfld, NB, NS, and PEI send delegates - Early September 1864 - explore possibility of larger union with eastern provinces - prepare outline of federal union for a conference of maritime delegates called at Charlottetown to discuss maritime union - Cartier felt he could persuade Maritimes to join union, together population would balance that of Upper Canada. - Brown wanted an end to French domination of English affairs - the end of a political stalemate. - Macdonald was worried about American aggression & felt the united British colonies could resist their neighbour. - Coalition of Macdonald/Brown propose union to maritime delegates to announced canandian parliament june 1864— broke political deadlock - Decide that union is feasible: and general parameters of a federal government is determined - canadas originally intended to create a strong central government by consolidating all provinces and legislatures and their powers in one grand parliament - another canadian principle was legislative sovereignty - act of british parliament would create Canada - canadians had initially intended to reduce provincial governments to municipal proportions, both french canada and maritimes made clear the provinces would have to survive relatively intact - gave upper canada rep by pop, lower canada provincial autonomy and offered nothing to nova soctia - agreed to meet later for quebec conference - Significance: Allowed the federal union to proceed, specifically a maritime union. Creation of a strong government covering all provinces — final formation of one big parliament and one big canada. British North America Act of 1867 - Major part of Canadians constitution - Creates Ontario and Quebec from former united colony of Canada - Forms a federal union of four provinces (Other colonies may join union: PEI, NFL, Red River Colony, BC) - Parliament: (1867) - Queen still the head of Government - Senate: 72 members - Regional distribution of seats - House of commons: 181 members - Representation by population/BNA act sets Quebec with 65 seats - Census to be taken in 1871 and every ten years after that - Provincial Constitutions - Lt. Governors - Executive council - Ontario Legislator: 82 seats - Quebec Legislative council and legislator: 65 seats - Distribution of powers - Provincial government powers: Taxation, Education, Hospitals and social welfare, civil law, etc. Samuel de Champlain (sept 19) - Champlain was born into an “up and coming” family, and born at a time of change (commercial activity in the North Atlantic world) no papers in textbook: can only bring walker text, not bumsted - acw 109 7 Fall Term - History 2500 - 2013-14 - William Wicken - 3 hour exam - th He is possibly the illegitimate son of King Henry the 4 - He was important because of what he left to us: - 6 volumes of his writings, maps (made first accurate map of the coast) - Describes landscapes, peoples - Champlain’s writings are one of the few detailed accounts of the early 1600’s - In 1608 he headed up the St. Lawrence to found a new trading post for de Monts at Stadacona (eventually was established as a colony – Quebec City) - He is known as the “Father of New France” - He established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death in 1635 - Champlain gradually allied himself with the local First Nations, who supplied him with furs and drew the French into war against the Iroquois - Significance: Champlain’s writings and maps help us to better understand the 1600’s (landscapes, the Europeans, First Nations, colonization, etc.) It also helped the Europeans of that time to better understand North America. He founded New France and what is now Quebec City. His alliance with the First Nations people ensured the colony’s success, as well as unleashing destructive forces that upset the existing balance among aboriginal communities (firearms, etc) Seven Years War (Oct 17) (Page 70) - last war between french and Britain over americas 1756-1763 (europe) - Struggle between european and french for allegiance of the aboriginal peoples in ohio valley and for sovereignty over the region came to a head - French 1749 military expedition - British then sent george washington, asking the French to leave (they refused), & moving into area to protect their investments & other merchants — trying to establish control - 1750 british sent 150 men, backed by aboriginals, to establish fort in ohio--confronted 30 men french party - May 1754 jumonville (aboriginal warrior) died - This upset french and they sent out much larger force to get virginians to surrender - However marginal regions were all affected by larger regions - French destroyed british regulars in 1755 - 1756 french took 1700 prisoners - 1757 french won lake route into canada in NY - 1758 british won fort fontenac - British made their army bigger and controlled the sea - britian continue to gain land as they controlled seas & prevented the french from replenishing their men and food - british lay siege to quebec because of their alliance with aboriginals and threat to north east colonies and lousibourg - Civilian government and military leadership were at constant loggerheads and morale was very low - Significance: most of eastern canada was taken from France and handed to Britain. Traumatic for quebec as they lost their culture, political and social impact of France. Also most civilian deaths than was seen before, brutality across the nation for british dominance. Jean de Brebeuf - Born in 1593 and died in 1649 - Part of the missionaries movement to Canada to preach the word of God in the 1600s - lived in New France among the Huron and was on a mission to bring God to these people - He believed that there was a God and a Devil and the Huron needed God as they were living in sin - He came to ‗Christianize‘ these people, Not to change the Huron beliefs entirely but, to introduce Christian beliefs to society no papers in textbook
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