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United States History Terms.docx

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HIST 2600
Marc Egnal

Korematsu. V United States - landmark United States Supreme Court Case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066 which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War 2 regardless of their citizenship - 6-3 decision, the court sided with the government ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional -6 of the 8 nominees sided with Roosevelt nominees sided with Roosevelt - during WW2 a military commander ordered all persons of Japanese descent to evacuate the West Coast - the petitioner Kormematus (Petitioner) A Untied States citizens of Japanese descent was convicted for failing to comply with the order - legal restrictions that curtail the civil rights of a single racial group are subject to the most rigid scrutiny but pressing public necessity may sometime justify such restrictions - President Roosevelt issued an executive order authorizing military commanders to prescribe military area from which any or all persons may be excluded - thereupon, a military commander ordered all persons of Japanese descent, whether not they were United States citizens, to leave their homes on the West Coast and to report “Assembly Centers” - The Petitioner a United States citizen of unchallenged loyalty, but of Japanese descent, was convicted under a federal law making it an offense to fail to comply with such military orders - young man was approached by police and said he was Hawaiian and Spanish - under further interrogation he stated he was Fred Tousabuto Koreamatsu, a Nisei who had been born in Oakland - wanted to conceal his Japanese identity - late 19 and 20 century Fred Koreamatsu’ story begins several decades - around this time Japan had a population growth that led Japanese to look for work outside of Japan - the increase in the Japanese population in California with a growing number of Japanese agricultural workers who were buying their own farms rather than continuing to work on a white owned land led to a significant rise in efforts to stop further immigration - Japans attack on pearl harbor led Japanese Americans rushing to declare their loyalty to Americans - anti-Asian prejudice Rise of the Suburbs - 1950’s “buy now pay later” - Americans purchased 58 million new cars during the 1950’s - known as the greatest migration in history - 20 million Americans moved to the suburbs in the decade making the suburban population equal to that of central cities -suburban life embodied the American Dream for many who longed for their own home, good schools, and neighbors life themselves - a new way of life centered around family and togetherness and consumption became the American dream - post industrial society, baby boomers, growth of the suburbs highways and migration - as real income rose Americans spent less of their income on necessities and more on powered law mowers and air conditions Booker T. Washington th - Leading Black Figure of the late 19 century - stressed professional education and accommodation - he was born a slave but freed after the civil war - he created Tuskegee institute - thought that blacks had to prove their economic value through occupational training such as carpentry and farming - after they did this he believed that racism would fade - self help message - movement for blacks in America since they were treated so unfairly - wrote a book called “up from slavery” - born 1856 died 1915 - theory on how to make race in the united states equal - education would do this - industrial education (agriculture, plumbing, carpentry, trade skill) - civil rights will come from this - born in West Virginia born in slavery Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) - the court validated the separate but equal notion - separate by equal for public places - Plessy attempted to sit in an all white railroad car - after refusing to sit in the black railway carriage car - was arrested for violating an 1890 Louisiana statue that provided for segregated “separate but equal” railroad accommodations - those using facilities not designated for their race were criminally liable under the statue - Plessy was found guilty on the grounds that the law was a reasonable exercise of the states police powers based upon customs , usage and tradition in the state - Plessy filed a petition stating segregation stigmatizes blacks and makes it evident they are inferior violating the 13 and 14 amendment - racial segregation was constitutional at the time - with the supreme courts blessing the South also segregated its publics schools ignoring the caveat the separate facilities must be equal - no until 1954 did the court overturn the “separate but equal” doctrine Election of 1912 - the 4 way election of 1912 - Roosevelt announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination - When Roosevelt got back from Africa he realized his party had split into the National Progressive Republican League and the side that stayed loyal to Taft - disappointed he began speaking out and organized the Bull Moose Party when Taft got sick - Taft gave up - Wilson and Roosevelt had two competing visions for the country - 1) New Nationalism: Roosevelt the new corporate order is here to stay, but big business must be strictly regulated in the public interest - 2) New Freedom: Wilson: new corporate order is choking off opportunity for ordinary Americans, wanted a small government, small business and free competition - because the republicans were divided the democrats achieved an easy win and took both houses of congress - election linked the Democrats with reform Populism - political ideology - The Peoples Party of the United States (1982) - called the Populist Party - the populist restated the alliance goals while adding a call for the direct popular election of senators and other electoral reforms - also supported a plan to allow farmers to store their nonperishable commodities in government warehouses, receive low interest loans as collateral and then sell the store commodities when market price rose - board vision of national reform - rights and power of the people in the struggle against the privileged elite Post Industrial Economy - service sector jobs - computer industry - there was a shift from the manufacture of goods (like the 1920’s and the rise of consumption) to one where majority of the economic activity occurs in the information and service industries - decline in manufacturing - large service sector - increase in technology - outsourcing Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) -encouraged farmers to reduce production by offering to pay government subsidies for every acre they plowed under - it was declared unconstitutional - overseeing the effort to help farmers by reducing production and raising prices - controversial - farm prices rose as production fell, and from 1933-1937 overall farm income increased by 50%. - AAA Crop reduction payments actually hurt southern tenants and sharecroppers, who faced eviction as cotton planters removed acreage from production - Roosevelt called this Act - restore purchasing power of American Farmers - World War I severely disrupted agriculture in Europe. That was an advantage to farmers in the United States, who increased production dramatically and were therefore able to export surplus food to European countries. But by the 1920s, European agriculture had recovered and American farmers found it more difficult to find export markets for their products. Farmers continued to produce more food than could be consumed, and prices began to fall. The decline in demand for agricultural products meant that many farmers had difficulty paying the mortgages on their farms. By the 1930s, many American farmers were in serious financial difficulty. Sharecropping - system n which tenant farmer paid a share of the crop as rent to the landowner - most wide speared arrangement evolved as a compromise - landowners subdivided large plantations into farms of thirty to fifty acres which they rented to freedmen under annual leases for a share of the crop usually half - freedmen preferred sharecropping to wage labor because it represented a step toward independence - although the wage system continued on sugar and rice plantations, by 1870’sthe plantation tradition had yielded to share cropping in the Cotton South - depression in 1873 drove many blacks and independent white farmers into sharecropping - white sharecroppers outnumber black - was a way for freedman to work on the land and be paid for it - landowner provided land, housing, tools, - at harvest time the sharecropper received a share of the crop which paid off his debt to the merchant - different from tenant farmer because they rented the land -after American Civil War plantation owners had to borrow money to produce crops - in the reconstruction era this was one of the few options for poor freedmen NAACP - The National Association for the Advancement of Color People - African American Civil Rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 - mission is to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of rights of all persons to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination - called for sustained activism including legal challenged to achieve political equality for blacks and full integration into American Life - Attracting the urban black middle class, the NAACP by 1914 had 6 thousand member in 50 branches - before the war grew from 9000 to nearly 100,000 by the early 1920 - vote against segregation - oldest and largest civil rights organization in the US - works for the elimination of Racial discrimination through lobbying, legal action and education - landmark victory Brown v, Board of Education Railroad Strike of 1877 **** - depression of 1870 forced American railroads into cost cutting mode - most violent labor management confrontation - tycoons cut wages in hoping to make more profit - workers were outranged - causing the president to send in federal troops to resolve the problem - July 14 - 45 days long - put down by local and state militias and federal troops Immigration 1865-1914**** Department Stores - convincing middle and upper class women that consumption was attractive and respectable - set the standard for consumption - entrepreneurs like Marshall field built giant department stores that transformed the shopping experience for their middle and upper class patrons - wanted to make shopping excited - for those who could afford it shopping became an adventure a form of entertainment and a way to affirm their place in society - way a way to affirm their place in society Clinton’s Welfare Reform - conservatives challenged the premises of welfare - cost too much - they believed it undermined the work and ethic trapped the poor in a cycle of dependence - The Poverty of Welfare Reform (1995) by Joel Handler dismissed the welfare campaign as symbolic arguing without fundamental changes in the labor market, changes in welfare polices would mean little - both parties wanted welfare - common Conesus: the present system failed - welfare should be a short-term tool to gaining employment not a lifelong entitlement - August 1996 Clinton signed landmark welfare reform bill - Ended AFDC (Air to Families with Dependent Children) - States to develop own welfare programs with federal grants, withdraw Medicine coverage once welfare benefits terminated - By December 1998 welfare benefits terminated - Clintons singing of the bill was proof of him starting to lean right in responses to the election of 1994 Fourteenth Amendment - concerned with the details of reintegrating the southern states after the civil war - all citizens have the right to due process of law regardless of race or any other reason that people came p with for denying due process - part of the reconstruction amendments intended to enfranchise African Americans who had been held in bondage prior to and the end of the civil war - law applied equally to everyone -post civil war amendment that included the due process and equal protection clause th - Plessy. Ferguson and violated the 14 amendment - defined citizenship and guaranteed equal protection under the law - April 1866 - how to deal with problems of reconstruction - prohibited stat and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness - equal protection was on the basis from brown b. board education - definition of a citizen FSA Documentary Photographs - Made low interest loans to help tenant farmers and sharecroppers become more self sufficient - operated camps, sanity shelters, medical services - commissioned gifted photographers to record the lives of tenants migrants and uprooted dust bowl families - These FSA photographs helped shape a gritty documentary style that pervaded 1930’s popular culture - effort during depression to combat American rural poverty - similar to the Grapes of Wrath Greensboro Sit-In - non-violent protests in 1960 which led to the Woolworth’s department store chain reversing its policy of segregation in the Southern United States - instrumental actions, leading to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in US history Interstate Commerce Act - after civil war they were privately owned - railroads first industry to be regulated by government - Wabash v. Illinois prevents states from regulating interstate railroad rates - this case limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce - this was the reasons why congress to pass the Interstate Commerce Act 1887 reaffirming federal power to investigate and oversee railroad activities and established the interstate Commerce Commission to do that - First federal attempt to control unfair practices by railroads - deigned to regulate railroad industry - act required railroad rates be reasonable and just but did not empower the government to fix specific raters - railroads should publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination a form of prince discrimination against smaller markets and particularly farmers - act was the first federal law to regulate private industry in the United States - passed in response to rising public convert with the goring power and wealth of corporation’s particularly railroads - became the principle form of transportation for people and goods American Federation of Labor - - Samuel Gompers president - Craft Unions which were limited and most successful - represented skilled workers in powerful independent craft unions - grew but only represented a small portion of the total labor force - between 1900-1920 it grew from 635,00 to 4 million - one of the 1 federations of labor unions in the US - founded in Ohio May 1886 - was the largest Union group in the first half of the Untied States - securing higher wages, better working conditions and a shorter work week for mem
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